Finding Allies and Making Revolution

The Early Years of the Chinese Communist Party

What does a Dutchman have to do with the rise of the Chinese Communist Party? Finding Allies and Making Revolution by Tony Saich reveals how Henk Sneevliet (alias Maring), arriving as Lenin’s choice for China work, provided the communists with two of their most enduring legacies: the idea of a Leninist party and the tactic of the united front. Sneevliet strived to instill discipline and structure for the left-leaning intellectuals searching for a solution to China’s humiliation. He was not an easy man and clashed with the Chinese comrades and his masters in Moscow. This new analysis is based on Sneevliet’s diaries and reports, together with contemporary materials from key Chinese figures, and important documents held in the Comintern’s China archive.

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Tony Saich, Harvard Kennedy School, is Daewoo Professor of International Affairs and Director of the Ash Center for Democracy and Government Innovation. He has published many monographs on China, including The Governance and Politics of China (Palgrave, 2015).
Preface and a Note on Sources
Pseudonyms of Sneevliet while in China

1 Introduction

2 Searching for Allies: Soviet Interests in China
 1 Early Soviet Activities in China
 2 The Comintern Develops a Strategy for the East
 3 Preparing for Voitinsky’s Visit
 4 Coordinating Revolutionary Movements in the East

3 Creating a Communist Party
 1 China on the Eve of and after Voitinsky’s Arrival
 2 Voitinsky’s Mission in China
 3 The Party Falls Apart
 4 The Development of Communist Small Groups across China

4 The Chinese Communist Party Decides its Path, Sneevliet Suggests a Different Route
 1 Post-Congress Differences
 2 Sneevliet Travels South and Sees the Revolution’s Future
 3 Sneevliet Travels South and Sees the Future

5 Concern in China, Acceptance in Moscow
 1 Reporting in Beijing and Shanghai
 2 Reporting to the Comintern
 3 Sneevliet Outlines His Views

6 Cajoling the Chinese Communist Party, Uniting with the Guomindang
 1 The Changing Scene in China: the Chinese Communist Party Shifts its Stance
 2 Hangzhou: a Time of Decision
 3 Sun Yat-sen, Wu Peifu and Soviet Russia
 4 Sun and Joffe Reach an Understanding

7 Doubts in Moscow, Continued Opposition in China
 1 Opposition in Moscow?

8 Chinese Communist Party Suffers a Setback, Guomindang Cooperation Cemented
 1 CER Negotiations with the Far Eastern Republic and Zhang Zuolin
 2 Soviet Aid for Sun Yat-sen
 3 The February Seventh Strike: a Sobering Experience
 4 The Third Congress of the Chinese Communist Party: Showdown
 5 Aftermath

Epilogue: Development and Disaster: Who Was to Blame?
All individuals and institutions interested in twentieth century Chinese history, the development of the Chinese Communist Party and the role of the Comintern.
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