Baalbek-Heliopolis, the Bekaa, and Berytus from 100 BCE to 400 CE

A Landscape Transformed


Author: Simone Paturel
The aim of this monograph is to understand the extent to which the landscape of Roman Berytus and the Bekaa valley is a product of colonial transformation following the foundation of Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus in 15 BCE. The book explores the changes observed in the cities of Berytus and Heliopolis, as well as the sites at Deir el-Qalaa, Niha, and Hosn Niha. The work fundamentally challenges the traditional paradigm, where Baalbek-Heliopolis is seen as a religious site dating from as early as the Bronze Age and associated with the worship of a Semitic or Phoenician deity triad and replaces it with a new perspective where religious activity is largely a product of colonial change.

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Simone Eid Paturel studied Spanish and Latin American literature at Paris-Sorbonne University, Egyptology at the Institut Kheops in Paris, History and Archaeology (BA) and Philosophy (MA) at the University of London. She completed her PhD in 2014 at the University of Newcastle. Her research is focused on the landscape archaeology of the ancient city of Baalbek-Heliopolis and its environs from 100 BCE to 400 CE.
'To sum up, the book provides a very useful overview of the history of Roman Berytus including the Bekaa valley, which before could only be gained by extensive reading of the scattered literature. (...) Thus, the book is highly recommended for every scholar interested in the late Hellenistic and Roman Levant." - Winfried Held, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Archäologisches Seminar, in: Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2020.11.35
Acknowledgements List of Figures and Tables
1 Introduction  1.1  The Aims of This Monograph  1.2  Objectives  1.3  Chronological and Geographical Range  1.4  Topography and Geographical Setting  1.5  Structure of the Monograph
2 Sources, Historiography, Method & Theory  2.1  Introduction  2.2  Sources and Historiography  2.3  Method and Theory  2.4  Conclusion
3 From Hellenistic Kingdoms to Roman Authority in the Levant  3.1  Introduction  3.2  The Hellenistic Kingdoms in the Levant  3.3  The Ituraeans and the Ituraean Principality
4 Pre-Hellenistic and Hellenistic Berytus  4.1  Introduction  4.2  Palaeolithic–Chalcolithic Activity (through 3000 BCE)  4.3  Bronze Age (3000 BCE–1200 BCE)  4.4  Iron Age (1200 BCE–323 BCE)  4.5  Hellenistic (323 BCE–15 BCE)  4.6  Conclusion: Pre-Roman Berytus
5 Pre-Hellenistic and Hellenistic Baalbek and the Bekaa  5.1  Introduction  5.2  The Names Baalbek and Heliopolis  5.3  Prehistoric and Hellenistic Baalbek  5.4  The Prehistoric and Hellenistic Bekaa and Ituraean Territories  5.5  Conclusion and Interpretation
6 Roman Berytus  6.1  Introduction  6.2  The Cardo Maximus and Colonnaded Decumani  6.3  Public Buildings and Religious Architecture  6.4  Domestic Architecture  6.5  Commerce  6.6  Funerary Practice  6.7  Conclusions: The “Reconstruction” of Berytus
7 Deir el-Qalaa  7.1  Introduction  7.2  The Sacred Area at Deir el-Qalaa  7.3  The Settlement Area  7.4  The Deities and the Inscriptions  7.5  Conclusions
8 The Sanctuaries of Niha and Hosn Niha  8.1  Introduction  8.2  Niha  8.3  Hosn Niha  8.4  Conclusion: Ancient Nihata and Hosn Niha
9 The Religious Landscape of Baalbek in the Roman Period  9.1  Introduction  9.2  Early Roman Baalbek: 15 BCE–Mid-second Century  9.3  The Later Roman Empire: From the Mid-second Century to the Fourth Century  9.4  Funerary Practice in Baalbek and Douris  9.5  Conclusion: A Double Transformation
10 Life in the Colonia from Epigraphic, Numismatic, and Iconographic Evidence  10.1  Introduction  10.2  The Heliopolitan “Triad”  10.3  Baalbek-Heliopolis and Imperial Patronage  10.4  Euergetism by Private Citizens  10.5  Veterans and the Roman Army  10.6  Civilians, Public Officials, and Families  10.7  Voting Tribes  10.8  Conclusions: Life at Baalbek and in the Bekaa
11 Landscape and Religious Architecture in the Colonia  11.1  Introduction  11.2  The Temples of Baalbek in the Landscape  11.3  The Temples of Niha in the Landscape  11.4  Deir el-Qalaa  11.5  Conclusion
12 Conclusion  12.1  Conclusions on Berytus, Deir el-Qalaa, Niha, and Baalbek-Heliopolis  12.2  Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus: A Latin Intrusion in the Near East?
Appendix A: Location Tables for Beirut Excavations Appendix B: Macrobius I.23.10–26 Glossary Bibliography Index
This book will be of interest to archaeologists and historians, students, academic libraries and laypersons interested in the Roman Near East, especially Berytus, Baalbek-Heliopolis and the Bekaa valley.