In Scribal Harmonization Cambry G. Pardee examines the earliest Greek manuscripts of the Synoptic Gospels for evidence that scribes altered the text of the Gospels—either deliberately or inadvertently—in ways that eliminated discrepancies between them. The phenomenon of harmonization demonstrates that a scribe’s memories of previous experiences with gospel traditions could have a powerful effect on the manuscripts that they produced. This book assembles for the first time a catalogue of harmonizing variants from every manuscript of Matthew, Mark, and Luke from the fourth century and earlier. Far from reducing the unique voices of the individual evangelists to a single melody, the earliest scribes contributed new tones, innovative strains, and fascinating harmonies to the four-fold gospel tradition.
Cambry G. Pardee, Ph.D. (2016), Loyola University Chicago, is Visiting Assistant Professor of Religion at Pepperdine University. He has published several studies on Textual Criticism, including “Peter’s Tarnished Image: Scribal Polishing in the Gospel of Luke (MS. 0171)” (ASE, 2016).
These discussions offer much needed food for thought, and we commend Pardee for his clarity of presentation, his caution, and his often wise judgement.
J.K. Elliot, Theologische Literaturzeitung
AckowledgmentsTablesAbbreviations 1 Scribal Harmonization 1 Scribes in the Ancient World 2 Introduction to Scribal Harmonization 3 Harmonization among Scribal Habits 4 Scribal Habits in the History of Scholarship 5 Method of the Present Investigation 2 Fragmentary Manuscripts of the Second and Third Centuries 1 The Text of the New Testament in the Second and Third Centuries 2 The Text of the Synoptic Gospels in the Second Century 3 Manuscripts of Matthew 4 The Text of the Synoptic Gospels in the Third Century 5 Manuscripts of Matthew 6 Manuscripts of Luke 7 ms 0171: a Manuscript of Matthew and Luke 8 Harmonization in Second- and Third-Century Fragmentary Manuscripts of the Synoptic Gospels 3 Extensive Manuscripts of the Third Century 1 P75 (P.Bodmer XIV and XV): a Manuscript of Luke and John 2 P45 (P.Chester Beatty I): a Manuscript of the Four Gospels and Acts 4 Fragmentary Manuscripts of the Fourth Century 1 The Text of the Synoptic Gospels in the Fourth Century 2 Manuscripts of Matthew 3 Manuscripts of Mark 4 Manuscripts of Luke 5 Harmonization in Fourth-Century Fragmentary Manuscripts of the Synoptic Gospels 5 Codex Vaticanus—a Fourth-Century Manuscript with the Complete Text of the Synoptic Gospels 1 Codex Vaticanus (Cod. Vat. Gr. 1209) 6 Codex Sinaiticus—a Fourth-Century Manuscript with the Complete Text of the Synoptic Gospels 1 Codex Sinaiticus 7 Conclusion—Harmonization and Gospel Harmony 1 Harmonization as a General Practice 2 Harmonization and Individual Scribes 3 Harmonization and Future Research 4 Harmonization and Gospel Harmony BibliographyIndex
This monograph will benefit scholars and students of New Testament Textual Criticism, early Christian manuscripts, the Synoptic Gospels, and the Synoptic Problem.