In Conflict, Identity, and State Formation in East Timor 2000-2017, James Scambary analyses the complex interplay between local and national level conflict and politics in the independence period. Communal conflict, often enacted by a variety of informal groups such as gangs and martial arts groups, has been a constant feature of East Timor’s post-independence landscape. A focus on statebuilding, however, in academic discourse has largely overlooked this conflict, and the informal networks that drive Timorese politics and society. Drawing on over a decade of fieldwork, Scambary documents the range of different cultural and historical dynamics and identities that drive conflict, and by which local conflicts and non-state actors became linked to national conflict, and laid the foundations of a clientelist state.
James Scambary, PhD (2015, Australian National University), is a research fellow at Deakin University. His publications include (2015), ‘In search of white elephants: the political economy of resource income expenditure in Timor-Leste’ Critical Asian Studies, 47 (2): 283-308.
Acronyms and Foreign TermsList of Figures and Tables1 The Enigma of the 2006 Crisis 1 An Alternative Reading 2 Dominant Narratives 2.1 The UN Made Me Do It 2.2 Post-Crisis Representations 2.3 The Invisibility of Sub-National Conflict 3 Some Observations on the Ground 3.1 Rural-Urban Linkages 4 Normative Traditions 5 New Paradigms 6 New Critical Scholarship 7 Conceptual Approach 8 Book Structure 2 An Archaeology of Conflict 1 Historical Legacies of Conflict 1.1 The 1975 Civil War 1.2 The Indonesian Invasion 1.3 Displacement and Resettlement 1.4 The Creation of
2 The 1999 Referendum Violence 2.1 ‘Mixed with other Matters’ 3 Social and Cultural Background 3.1 Language and Ethnicity 3.2 Social Organisation 3.3 Payback Traditions 3.4 Traditional and Administrative Residential Structures 3.5 Rural-Urban Migration 3.6 Conclusion3 The 2006 Crisis in Context 1 Early Tensions 2 The April/May 2006 Crisis 2.1 Orchestrated and Inclusive Violence 3 The Second Phase 4 Patterns in Conflict 5 The Post-Crisis Period 5.1 Conclusion4 Mystics, Messiahs and Machismo:
and Veterans’ Groups 1 Group Typology 2 Veterans’ groups 2.1 Linkages and Alliances 3 Martial Arts Groups 3.1 Linkages and Alliances 3.2 Conclusion5 Gangs or Glee Clubs? Urban Dili-Based Groups 1 Group Origins 2 Violence as a Social Construct 3 Group Typology 3.1 Youth Groups 3.2 Clandestine Groups 3.3 Gangs 4 Multiple Identities and Memberships 4.1 Conclusion6 Conflict and Resilience in a Squatter Settlement 1 Background 2 Contested Authority 2.1 Dynamics of Communal Conflict 3 Symptoms of Alienation or Forms of Resilience? 3.1 Conclusion7 Implications for Peacebuilding 1 Macro-Level Approaches to Peacebuilding 2 The
Return Process 3 mag Mediation Initiatives 4 Localised Initiatives 5 Hybrid Approaches 6 Participatory Approaches 7 Local Approaches 7.1 Conclusion 7.2 As Mac Ginty and Richmond contend8 The Foundations of a Clientelist State 1 Politics and Elections East Timor Style 2 Emerging Clientelist Patterns 3 Centralisation of Power 4 A Culture of Informality 5 Defining Power Configurations 5.1 Conclusion9 Conflict and State Formation: An Integrated Understanding 1 Understanding Conflict Dynamics 2 The 2006 Crisis and State-Formation 3 Postscript ReferencesIndex
Anybody interested in the politics and history of East Timor and those with a broader interest in the processes of conflict, peacebuilding and state formation globally.