Kanišite Hittite

The Earliest Attested Record of Indo-European


In Kanišite Hittite Alwin Kloekhorst discusses the ethno-linguistic make-up of Kaniš (Central Anatolia, modern-day Kültepe), the most important Anatolian mercantile centre during the kārum-period (ca. 1970-1710 BCE), when Assyrian merchants dominated the trade in Anatolia. Especially by analysing the personal names of local individuals attested in Old Assyrian documents from Kaniš, Alwin Kloekhorst demonstrates that the main language spoken there was a dialect of Hittite that was closely related to but nevertheless distinct from the Hittite language as spoken in the later Hittite Kingdom. This book offers a full account of all onomastic material and other linguistic data of Kanišite Hittite, which constitute the oldest attested record of any Indo-European language.

"The achievement of Kloekhorst’s study is that it advances the case for classifying the local language as a predecessor of Hittite... the present state of knowledge as presented by Kloekhorst is a huge step forward and he is to be congratulated with this important milestone in Old Assyrian and Hittite studies."

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Alwin Kloekhorst, Ph.D. (2007), Leiden University, is Assistant Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at LUCL. He has published extensively on Hittite, including the monographs Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Brill, 2008) and Accent in Hittite (Harrassowitz, 2014).

Part 1: Methodology and Analyses

1 Personal Names in the Old Assyrian Texts from Kaniš
 1.1 Dating of Texts
 1.2 Old Assyrian Texts from Outside Kaniš
 1.3 Men’s vs. Women’s Names
 1.4 Family Relations
 1.5 Names Attested in Other Sources

2 The Linguistic Analysis of Personal Names: Methodological Preliminaries
 2.1 Kanišite Names
 2.2 Methodological Difficulties

3 Phonological Interpretation of the Kanišite Names
 3.1 The Transliteration of the Cuneiform Signs
 3.2 Spelling Alternations in Names

4 Identifying the Linguistic Background of the Kanišite Personal Names
 4.1 The Term nuwā’um
 4.2 Influence of the Local Language(s) of Kaniš on Old Assyrian
 4.3 Arguments for a Hittitoid Identification
 4.4 Arguments for a Luwic Identification
 4.5 Arguments for a Hurrian Identification
 4.6 Arguments for a Hattic Identification
 4.7 Names of an Unclear Origin
 4.8 Conclusions: Kanišite Hittite

Part 2: Kanišite Hittite Personal Names: the Material

5 Kanišite Hittite Compound Names
 5.1 The Linking -a-
 5.2 The Final Elements of the Kanišite Hittite Compound Names
 5.3 The Initial Elements of the Kanišite Hittite Compound Names
 5.4 Summary: an Overview of Elements

6 Other Kanišite Hittite Names
 6.1 Relatively Certain Cases
 6.2 Less Certain Cases
 6.3 Excursus: the Alleged(?) Kanišite Name labarna(š)

7 Excursus 1: Kanišite ašie/at (m.) and na/ikilie/at (m.) and the Hittite Verbal System
 7.1 ašie/at (m.) and na/ikilie/at (m.)
 7.2 A Morphological Analysis
 7.3 ašie/at and na/ikilie/at as Original Verbal Forms
 7.4 Other Names in -iet / -iat

8 Excursus 2: Kanišite -ašue and the Feminine Gender in Hittite and Proto-Indo-European
 8.1 -ašu-e and PIE *-ih₂-
 8.2 Feminine Gender in Anatolian?
 8.3 The Original Function of PIE *-ih₂-
 8.4 The Element -e in -ašue: a Motion Suffix or an Agreement Marker?

Part 3: The Linguistic Status of Kanišite Hittite

9 Comparing Kanišite Hittite to Ḫattuša Hittite
 9.1 Epenthesis in */sp-/
 9.2 Kanišite Hitt. -ḫšu(šar) vs. Ḫattuša Hitt. ḫaššu(šra)-
 9.3 Kanišite Hitt. išpud- / šupud- vs. Ḫattuša Hitt. išpant-
 9.4 Kanišite Hitt. išpun- / šapun- / šupun- vs. Ḫattuša Hitt. išpant-
 9.5 Two Different Dialects: Kanišite Hittite vs. Ḫattuša Hittite

10 Two Hittite Dialects: Historical Reality
 10.1 The Language Situation in Ḫattuša in the Early 2nd Millennium BCE
 10.2 Dating the Hattic-Hittite Language Shift in Ḫattuša
 10.3 The Place from Where Hittite was Introduced into Ḫattuša
 10.4 Problem: Ḫattuša Hittite is not Kanišite Hittite
 10.5 Conclusions


All Hittitologists and Assyriologists, and anyone interested in Indo-European linguistics.
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