Alcohol in Early Java

Its Social and Cultural Significance


In Alcohol in Early Java: Its Social and Cultural Significance, Jiří Jákl offers an account of the production, trade, and consumption of alcohol in Java before 1500 CE, and discusses a whole array of meanings the Javanese have ascribed to its use. Though alcohol is extremely controversial in contemporary Islamic Java, it had multiple, often surprising, uses in the pre-Islamic society.

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Jiří Jákl, Ph.D. (2014), University of Queensland, is a researcher based at the Institute of Anthropology, Heidelberg University. He has published widely on the Javanese social and cultural history before 1500 C.E.
List of Figures

 1 Old and Middle Javanese Textual Sources: What Can Be Known?

part 1: Drinking Landscape in Ancient Java

 Introduction to Part 1

1 Twak: Production and Types of Palm Wine
 1 Tapping
 2 Production
 3 Waragaṅ
 4 Baḍyag
 5 Buḍur
 6 Sajəṅ
 7 Sayub

2 Beers and Lalasti Inebriating Snacks

3 Fruit Wines and Sugar Cane Wine
 1 Sugar Cane Wine and ‘Rums’ in Pre-Islamic Java
 2 Māstawa and Sīdhu: Rums in Pre-Islamic Java?

4 Drākṣa: Imported Grape Wine or Chinese Rice Beer?

5 Tuber Beer and Intoxicating Mushroom Brews

6 Distilled Beverages
 1 Arrack below the Winds
 2 Tampo, pǝṭar, and paṅasih: Alternative Terms for Distilled Drinks

7 Cups That Cheered: Drinking Paraphernalia
 1 Drinking Vessels from Natural Materials
 2 Pottery Vessels: Earthenware, Stoneware and Porcelain
 3 Glass Cups and Vessels from Silver and Gold

8 Drinking Comportment

part 2: Alcohol, Hospitality, and Identity in Java before 1500 CE

 Introduction to Part 2

9 Drinking Ascetics and the Status of Alcohol before 1500 CE

10 Palm Wine for Sale: Ambulant Vendors and Market Stalls

11 Alcohol, Intoxication, and the Court Society

12 Alcohol in Marriage Festivities and Conjugal Rituals

13 Alcohol and Its Importance in Javanese Warfare

14 Ancestor Worship, Alcohol, and sīma Ceremonies

15 Alcohol in Javanese Bhairavism and Its Use among the Buddhists
 1 Javanese Tantric Systems and Alcohol
 2 Alcohol and Its Use and Significance among the Buddhists and Siddha Alchemists

16 Inebriated Men and Intoxicated rākṣasas: Drunkenness

17 Habitual Drinkers: Alcoholism in Pre-Islamic Java?

18 Islamization and Alcohol after 1500 CE

All interested in premodern and early-modern history of Southeast Asia, and anthropologists interested in intoxicants, diet, and feasting.
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