Turkey: The Pendulum between Military Rule and Civilian Authoritarianism


Winner of the 2021 Choice Outstanding Academic Title Award

In Turkey: The Pendulum between Military Rule and Civilian Authoritarianism, Fatih Çağatay Cengiz explains Turkey’s trajectory of military and civilian authoritarianism while offering an alternative framework for understanding the Kemalist state and state-society relations. This book clearly captures the zeitgeist of the moment Turkey has passed/has been passing through: democratisation, authoritarianism, and the coup cycle. Moreover, the book not only focuses on Turkish domestic politics with regards to procedural democratisation and waves of authoritarianism under the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, AKP), it also engages with Turkey’s recent foreign policy; policy that pushes Turkey to take an active role in the Syrian conflict through the concept of ‘Neo-Ottomanism’.

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Fatih Çağatay Cengiz,, Ph.D. (2016), School of Oriental and African Studies, is Assistant Professor at Ondokuz Mayıs University. He has published articles on democratisation, state theory and sub-imperialism in the British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies and Politikon.
List of Figures, Box and Tables

Introduction: Conceptualisation of Kemalism, Bonapartism, and Procedural Democracy

1 The Kemalist State
 1 The Historical Legacy
 2 The 1923 İzmir Economic Congress and National Developmentalism
 3 The Statist and Ultra-nationalist Phase in the Kemalist Capitalist State
 4 Industrial Upgrading (1960–1980)
 5 Failed Democratic Transition under the Democrat Party (1950–1960)
 6 The 1960 Coup and 1971 Memorandum in the Context of the Cold War
 7 Institutionalisation of “Kemalism without Mustafa Kemal”
 8 Bourgeoisification of the Military

2 The Construction of a New Society after the 1980 Military Coup
 1 The Completion of the National Developmentalist Project
 2 The Absorption of Kemalism into Neoliberalism
 3 Islamisation of Society after the 1980s
 4 Turgut Özal in Power (1983–1989 and 1989–1993): Post-Kemalist Rule
 5 Political Liberalisation in the 1990s under Post-Bonapartist Rule
 6 Second-generation Devout Turkish Bourgeoisie
  6.1 MÜSİAD (The Independent Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s Association)
  6.2 ASKON (The Anatolian Tigers Business Association)
  6.3 TUSKON (Turkish Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists)

3 War of Manoeuvre by Islamic Fundamentalism against the Kemalist State
 1 The Political Trajectory of Islamic Parties Led by Necmettin Erbakan in Turkey
  1.1 The National Order Party (1970–1971)
  1.2 The National Salvation Party (1972–1981)
  1.3 The Welfare Party (1983–1998)
 2 The Just Economic System: a Petty-bourgeois Utopia in the Era of Neoliberalism
 3 The National View (Milli Görüş) as Common Ideational Ground for Islamic Parties
 4 The Islamic Alternative to the Kemalist State
 5 The Military Intervention of 28 February 1997
 6 The Rupture in Islamic Politics

4 War of Position by the AKP against the Kemalist State
 1 The Restructuring of the State after the End of the Cold War
 2 The Rise of the AKP in the Post-crisis Period and Continuation of Neoliberal Economic Policies
  2.1 The 2001 Economic Crisis
  2.2 The Economy under AKP Rule
 3 Procedural Democratisation under the Influence of the EU
 4 The AKP Tactics towards the Military: the Modern Capitalist Prince and a “War of Position”

5 Authoritarian Turn, Sub-imperialist Foreign Policy, and the Failed Coup of 15 July 2016
 1 The Expansion of the Gülen Movement
 2 The Ergenekon and Sledgehammer (Balyoz) Trials
 3 Authoritarian Wave in Domestic Policy
 4 Sub-imperialism and Neo-Ottomanism in Foreign Policy: strategic Depth or Strategic Failure?
  4.1 Sub-imperialism in Question
  4.2 The Military Dimension of Turkey’s Sub-imperialist Role
  4.3 Continuity in Turkish Foreign Policy in the 1990s
  4.4 The Economic Foundation of Neo-Ottomanism: Turkish Exports and Capital in the Region
  4.5 Turkish Companies as Agents of Regional Economic Power
  4.6 Political Tools for Turkish Sub-imperialism
 5 Neo-Ottomanism in Practice
 6 The State Crisis Ahead of Turkey’s Failed Coup

6 Concluding Observations
 1 Basic Structural Economic Limitations of Turkey’s Sub-imperialist Expansion: the Sustainability and Capacity Problem of the Turkish Economy
 2 Is Erdoğan an Islamic Bonaparte?
 3 Any Hope: waiting for Godot?

This book is for anyone interested in Turkish politics and civil-military relations in general. It is also relevant to undergraduate and postgraduate students that study Middle Eastern politics more generally.
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