In Rwanda Revisited: Genocide, Civil War, and the Transformation of International Law, the contributing authors seek to recount, explore, and explain the tragedy that was the Rwanda genocide and the nature of the international community’s entanglement with it. Written by people selected for their personalized knowledge of Rwanda, be it as peacekeepers, aid workers, or members of the ICTR, and/or scholarship that has been clearly influenced by the genocide, this book provides a level of insight, detail and first-hand knowledge about the genocide and its aftermath that is clearly unique. Included amongst the writers are a number of scholars whose research and writings on Rwanda, the United Nations, and genocide are internationally recognized.
Contributors are: Major (ret’d) Brent Beardsley, Professor Jean Bou, Professor Jane Boulden, Dr. Emily Crawford, Lieutenant-General the Honourable Romeo Dallaire, Professor Phillip Drew, Professor Mark Drumbl , Professor Jeremy Farrall, Lieutenant-General John Frewen, Dr. Stacey Henderson, Professor Adam Jones, Ambassador Colin Keating, Professor Robert McLaughlin, Linda Melvern, Dr. Melanie O’Brien, Professor Bruce Oswald, Dr. Tamsin Phillipa Paige, Professor David J. Simon, and Professor Andrew Wallis.
Dr. Phillip Drew is the Assistant Dean of Juris Doctor and Graduate Studies at Queen’s University (Kingston) and is an Honorary Associate Professor at the Australian National University (ANU) College of Law. Dr. Drew spent 30 years in the Canadian Armed Forces as an Intelligence Officer and a Legal Officer. He was deployed to Rwanda in July 1994 as the Canadian Contingent Intelligence Officer. In August 1994 he coordinated an investigation into allegations that the Rwandan Patriotic Army was conducting mass killings of civilians throughout the country.
Dr. Jeremy Farrall is Associate Dean (Research) at the Australian National University (ANU) College of Law and Professor of Law in the ANU Law School. Professor Farrall has worked for the United Nations in a range of capacities, serving as a Political Affairs Officer for the UN Security Council at UN Headquarters in New York (2001-2004) and for the UN Mission in Liberia (2004-2006). He was also a UN Facilitator for the UN Secretary-General's Good Offices team that mediated peace talks in Cyprus (2004, 2008).
Dr. Rob McLaughlin is a Professor of Law in the Australian National University (ANU) Law School. He researches, publishes, and teaches in the areas of Law of Armed Conflict, Law of the Sea, Maritime Security Law and Maritime Law Enforcement, and Military Law. Before moving into academia, Rob enjoyed a rewarding career in the Royal Australian Navy as a Seaman officer and a Legal officer. Consequently, his research interests are primarily focussed around issues of practical operational significance. His legal roles included as the Fleet Legal Officer, the Strategic Legal Adviser, as a Counsel Assisting the HMAS SYDNEY II Commission of Inquiry, Director Operations and International Law, and Director Naval Legal Service.
Dr. Bruce Oswald is a Professor and Director of the Asia Pacific Centre for Military Law in the Melbourne Law School at the University of Melbourne. His interests in law and practice are in the areas of international humanitarian law, peace operations, state building, accountability and responsibility, and the application of human rights law to military operations. Ossie has served in the Australian Regular Army as a legal officer. He has seen operational service in Rwanda, the Former Yugoslavia, East Timor, Iraq and Afghanistan. For his service as the Legal Officer for the Australian Contingent serving in Rwanda, Ossie was awarded the Conspicuous Service Cross (CSC).
List of Abbreviations
Notes on Contributors
Foreword–Rwanda Revisited: Genocide, Civil War, and the Transformation of International Law
Lieutenant-General the Honourable Romeo Dallaire
Phillip Drew, Jeremy Farrall, Rob McLaughlin, and Bruce Oswald
Part 1: Rwanda, UNAMIR and the International Community
1 Rwanda’s Forgotten Years
Reconsidering the Role and Crimes of Akazu 1973–1993
2 Rwanda: the Political Failure of the UN Security Council
Ambassador Colin Keating
3 Wilfully Blind: the Security Council’s Response to Genocide in Rwanda
Tamsin Phillipa Paige
4 Underpowered and Mostly UnwantedA Short History of UNAMIR
5 Rwanda Revisited: UNAMIR IIAustralian Reflections on the Mission and the Mandate
Lieutenant-General J.J. Frewen
6 UNAMIR: a Deployed Legal Officer’s Retrospective
Bruce ‘Ossie’ Oswald
7 Do Not Intervene: UNAMIR’s Rules of Engagement from the Inside
Phillip Drew and Major (ret’d) Brent Beardsley
Part 2: The “G” Word
8 Defining Genocide
9 Rwanda, the Holocaust, and the Predictable Path to Genocide
10 Moral EquivalenceThe Story of Genocide Denial in Rwanda
11 Gendering Rwanda Genocide and Post-Genocide
Part 3: Prosecuting Genocide
12 The ICTR and Its Contribution to the Revivification of International Criminal Law
13 Post-Genocide Justice in Rwanda
Part 4: Rwanda’s Legacy
14 Rwanda: Lessons Observed. Lessons Learned?
15 Some Rules of Engagement Legacies of the
Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda Rob McLaughlin
16 Rwanda and the RohingyaLearning the Wrong Lessons?
David J. Simon
17 Humanitarian Intervention and R2P
All interested in the Rwandan genocide and the changes made in international peacekeeping operations and international law as a result.