Pauline Economy in the Middle Ages

''The Spiritual Cannot Be Maintained Without The Temporal ...''


In Pauline Economy in the Middle Ages ''The Spiritual Cannot Be Maintained Without The Temporal ...'' Beatrix F. Romhányi examines the estate management of the Pauline order – the only religious community native to medieval Hungary.
Sources on the history, and especially on the economy, of the order have survived in exceptionally high numbers compared to other religious communities in Hungary. In the late Middle Ages, the order developed a unique estate management system. Based on the income of their landed estates and their privileges, the Paulines increasingly moved towards the capitalistic estate management around 1500, while donations, alms and annuities still composed a significant part of the incomes connecting the Paulines to the mendicant orders.

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Beatrix F. Romhányi, DSc (2015), Károli Gáspár Calvinist University (Budapest), is Professor of Medieval Studies at that university. Her research focuses on the economic activity of the religious orders in Hungary and in Central Europe, as well as on changes of the medieval settlement network.
Zsuzsanna Reed (proof-reading), Réka Fülöpp (drawings).
"Having flourished in the 1980s in both western and eastern Europe, research into the economic management of the mendicant convents has recently picked up speed again, at least as far as the two largest mendicant orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, are concerned. Beatrix F. Romhányi has taken on a challenge in two respects, which sets her study apart from traditional research methods and deserves praise for this reason alone: on the one hand, she has chosen the comparatively small, regionally limited, and only little researched Pauline Order as the subject of her analysis; on the other hand, she breaks away from the prevailing approach of the study of individual monasteries by taking a look at the economy of the entire order in its home country […] the author has provided a well-prepared and immensely practical investigation, which definitely will serve as a reference for individual monasteries as well as a general overview for any future research on the overall topic.” Frederick Felskau, in The Journal of Medieval Monastic Studies 10 (2021).
List of Figures, Tables, Maps, and Diagrams


1 The Beginnings of the Order in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries

2 Estates

3 Forest Management

4 Townhouses

5 Vineyards

6 Mills

7 Fishponds

8 Animal Husbandry

9 Other Income

10 Salt as Income

11 Mortgage, Hypothec, Trade


Appendix 1: Tables 1-6
Appendix 2: Tables 7‒10, Including Diagrams 1‒3, Maps 1‒6, and Ground Plans (Figures 1‒40)
Index of Names
Index of Places
All interested in medieval ecclesiastic or economic history, and those concerned with the medieval history of Hungary and East Central Europe.
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