A History of Chinese Buddhist Faith and Life

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The goal of this book is to study the ways in which Chinese Buddhists expressed their religious faiths and how Chinese Buddhists interacted with society at large since the Northern and Southern dynasties (386-589), through the Ming (1368-1644) and the Qing (1644-1911), up to the Republican era (1912-1949). The book aims to summarize and present the historical trajectory of the Sinification of Buddhism in a new light, revealing the symbiotic relationship between Buddhist faith and Chinese culture.
The book examines cases such as repentance, vegetarianism, charity, scriptural lecture, the act of releasing captive animals, the Bodhisattva faith, and mountain worship, from multiple perspectives such as textual evidence, historical circumstances, social life, as well as the intellectual background at the time.

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Kai Sheng is a Professor in and currently the Vice Head of the Department of Philosophy, at Tsinghua University, as well as the Vice Director of the Institute for Ethics and Religious Studies (IERS) at that same university. His research areas include Buddhist schools of the South and North Dynasties in China, the relations between Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, the social history of Chinese Buddhism, Buddhism in the modern society, and Buddhism and western philosophy.
"This volume serves as an excellent historical overview of the nature of Chinese Buddhism."
– Joseph Chadwin, Religious Studies 47.2 (June 2021)
Contents

List of Figures

Introduction: Expression and Transformation of Chinese Buddhist Faith: Perspectives of Institutional History, Social History, Cultural History, and Scholarship History
 1 “Entire Buddhism” and the Sinicization of Buddhism
 2 The Perspective of Institutional History in Chinese Buddhist Faith
 3 The Perspective of Social History in Chinese Buddhist Faith
 4 The Perspective of Cultural History in Chinese Buddhist Faith
1 The Faith and Lifestyles of Buddhists during the Northern and Southern Dynasties
 1 The Formation of Buddhist Repentance
1.1 Daoan’s Regulations for Monks and Nuns and Confession of Transgressions
1.2 Preaching in the Northern and Southern Dynasties
1.3 Purification Gathering (Zhaihui齋會) and Repenting Transgressions (Huiguo悔過)
1.4 The Formation of Repentance Rites in the Six Dynasties Period (222-589)
1.5 Zhenguan真觀 (538-611) and the Formation of the Lianghuang Chan梁皇懺
 2 The Formation of the Tradition of Buddhist Vegetarianism
2.1 The Scriptural Basis of Vegetarianism
2.2 The Tradition of Monastic Vegetarianism before Liang Wudi
2.3 Vegetarianism of Zhou Yong周顒 (?-493) and Shen Yue沈約 (441-513)
2.4 The Thought of Liang Wudi in the “Duan Jiurou Wen”
 3 Buddhist Societies in the Northern and Southern Dynasties and Philanthropy
3.1 Buddhist Societies of the Northern and Southern Dynasties
3.2 Buddhist Merit Making in the Northern and Southern Dynasties 98
3.3 Buddhist Philanthropy in the Northern and Southern Dynasties 101
 4 The Cult of the Fahua jing in the Northern and Southern Dynasties  114
4.1 The Idea of Samādhi in the Fahua Jing
4.2 The Contemplative Method of “Lotus Samādhi” in the Siwei Lüeyao Fa思惟略要法
4.3 Idea of Repentance in the Puxian Guanjing普賢觀經
4.4 The Popularity of the Cult of the Fahua Jing
4.5 Huisi’s Fahua Jing Anlexing Yi 法華經安樂行義
 5 Cults of Bhaiṣajyaguru, Avalokiteśvara and Relics in the Northern and Southern Dynasties
5.1 The Cult of Bhaiṣajyaguru in the Northern and Southern Dynasties 143
5.2 The Cult of Avalokiteśvara in the Northern and Southern Dynasties 148
5.3 The Cult of Relics during the Northern and Southern Dynasties 152
 6 Concluding Remarks
  Appendix 1.1: The Translation of Avalokiteśvara’s Name and the Transmission of Related Scriptures
2 Faith and Lifestyle of Buddhists in the Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties
 1 Buddhist Faith and Rituals in the Sui and Tang
1.1 Zhiyi and the Compilation of Repentance Rites
1.2 Zongmi and the Yuanjue Jing Daochang Xiuzheng Yi圓覺經道場修證儀
1.3 Repentance Ritual of Chan Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty
1.4 Daoxuan and the Repentance Ritual of the Vinaya School
1.5 Shandao and Pure Land Rites of Worship and Praise
1.6 Sui and Tang Medicine Buddha Altars and the Repentance Ritual of Worshiping the Medicine Buddha
1.7 Maitreya Faith and Ritual of Maitreya Worship and Repentance
 2 Neidaochang 內道場 and Śarīra Worship in the Sui and Tang
2.1 Origins of the Neidaochang內道場
2.2 Yang Guang’s Huiri Daochang and Riyan Monastery
2.3 Neidaochang in the Tang Dynasty
2.4 Śarīra Worship of Emperor Wen of Sui
2.5 Śarīra Worship of the Emperors in the Tang Dynasty
 3 Buddhist Social Philanthropy in the Sui and Tang Periods
3.1 Buddhist Philanthropy in the Sui Dynasty
3.2 Compassion-Field Infirmaries in the Tang Dynasty
3.3 Monastery Boarding Houses in the Tang Dynasty
 4 Public Lectures and Illustrative Narrative in the Tang and Five Dynasties
4.1 Ritual Procedures for Lecturing on Sūtras in the Tang and Five Dynasties
4.2 Public Lectures in the Tang and Five Dynasties
4.3 Illustrative Lecture and Illustrative Narrative in the Tang and Five Dynasties Period
 5 Conclusion
Appendix 2.1: An English Translation of the Yaoshi Daochang Wen  藥師道場文 (Text of the Medicine Buddha Altar; B. 8719V), Based on Li Xiaorong’s Critical Edition
  Appendix 2.2: 34 Monastics Affiliated with Yang Guang’s Palace Chapels
  Appendix 2.3: Monastics Involved in the Construction of Stūpas During the Renshou Era (601-604)
  Appendix 2.4: A Comparison of Descriptions of the Sūtra Lecturing by Ennin and Other Sources
3 Buddhist Faith and Activities in the Song and Yuan Dynasties (960–1368)
 1 Buddhist Faith and Rituals in the Song and Yuan Periods
1.1 The Creation and Practice of Tiantai Repentance Rituals in the Song Dynasty
1.2 The Practice of Repentance in the Song Huayan School
1.3 Buddhist and Pure Land Communes in the Song-Yuan Periods
1.4 Niepan Hui涅槃會 (Nirvāṇa Gatherings) and the Niepan Lizan Wen 涅槃禮贊文 (Veneration Verses of the Nirvāṇa)
1.5 The Development of the ‘Water and Land Rite’
 2 Buddhist Philanthropy in the Song and Yuan Periods
2.1 Buddhist Social Programs during the Song Dynasty
2.2 Song Dynasty Buddhism and Regional Charity
 3 The Practice of Life Release in Buddhism from the Song to Yuan Periods
3.1 The Origins of the Life Release Practice
3.2 Life Release Practices Before the Song Period
3.3 The Popularity of the Life Release Practice in the Song Dynasty 432
 4 Conclusion
  Appendix 3.1: Three Transgressions (Sampin zui 三品罪)
Appendix 3.2: Three Methods of Repentance (Sanzhong Chanmen  三種懺門)
4 Buddhist Faith and Lifestyles in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
 1 Mount Jiang Dharma Services and the Consolidation of Yoga Teachings under Emperor Taizu of Ming
1.1 The Creation and Procedures of the Mount Jiang Dharma Service 440
1.2 Ming Taizu’s Religious Views on Spirits and the Demands of “Rites” and “Time” in Sacrifices
1.3 Regulation and Promotion of Buddhist Services by Ming Taizu
 2 Buddhist Services and Monastic Regulations under the Ming-Qing Periods
2.1 The Popularity and Disorder of Buddhist Services in the Ming and Qing
2.2 The Production and Perfection of Buddhist Repentance in the Ming and Qing
2.3 The Revisions and Popularity of Morning and Evening Recitations
2.4 Reflection and Criticism of Buddhist Services in the Ming, Qing, and Republican Periods
 3 Philanthropy and the Life-Release in Ming and Qing Buddhism
3.1 Buddhist Philanthropy in the Ming and Qing
3.2 The Custom of Life-Releasing in Ming and Qing Buddhism
 4 The Formation of the Belief in the Four Buddhist Sacred Mountains in Ming and Qing Periods
4.1 The Time Frame in Which the Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains Concept Appeared
4.2 The Significance of Veneration of the Four Great Sacred Peaks
4.3 The Formation of Sacred Mountain Veneration and the Overcoming of the “Borderland Complex”
 5 Conclusion
  Appendix 4.1: The Times, Locations, Eminent Monks Participating in the Mount Jiang Dharma Service (Hasebe, kyōdanshi, 18-20)
  Appendix 4.2: Three Hindrances (Sanzhang 三障)
  Appendix 4.3: Morning and Evening Chanting
Conclusion: The Characteristics of Chinese Buddhist Faith
 1 Spatial Creation for Objects of Chinese Buddhist Faith
 2 Rituals of Chinese Buddhist Faith, Politics of Imperial Power and Systems of Ritual
 3 Rationalism and Communalism as Chinese Buddhist Expressions of Faith
 4 Pragmatism as Chinese Buddhist Expression of Faith

Bibliography

Index
All interested in East Asian religions, Especially East Buddhism and Chinese Buddhism.
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