Argument is War: Relevance-Theoretic Comprehension of the Conceptual Metaphor of War in the Apocalypse


In Argument is War: Relevance-Theoretic Comprehension of the Conceptual Metaphor of War in the Apocalypse, Clifford T. Winters demonstrates that the apparent war in the Apocalypse is rather telling the story of the gospel: how Christ will restore Israel and, through them, the rest of the world. When Revelation is viewed through the corrective lens of cognitive linguistics, its violence becomes victory, its violent characters become Christ, and its bloody end becomes the blessed beginning of the New Jerusalem. Revelation is simply telling the story of the early church (the Gospels and Acts) to the early church, and it is using a conceptual metaphor (‘ARGUMENT IS WAR’) to do it.

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Clifford T. Winters, Ph.D. (2018), Asbury Theological Seminary, is Adjunct Professor of Family Ministries at Barclay College in Haviland, Kansas, and Teaching Pastor at New England Chapel in Franklin, Massachusetts. He has pastored for twenty years, and is the author of several articles, including “A Strange Death: Cosmic Conflagration as Conceptual Metaphor in 2 Peter 3:6–13” in Conversations with the Biblical World (2013), and “Gehenna” in the Lexham Bible Dictionary.
List of Figures and Tables

1 Introduction
 1.1 Revelation Has Two Problems
 1.2 Defining the Problem: “Relevance”
 1.3 Defining the Problem: “Violence”
 1.4 How These Problems Relate: “Judgment”

2 Methodology
 2.1 A Long History of Study
 2.2 Metaphor is Natural to Cognition
 2.3 Metaphor is Natural to Comprehension
 2.4 A Model for Combining RT and CMT : Hybrid Theory
 2.5 Acknowledgment: “Structure” and “Meaning” in Other Disciplines
 2.6 What This Book is Arguing

3 Composing the Conceptual Metaphor ARGUMENT IS WAR
 3.2 Metaphors in Revelation That Look like Daniel 2
 3.3  ARGUMENT IS WAR Looks like Daniel 2

4 Elaborating and Completing ARGUMENT IS WAR
 4.1 The Elaboration of ARGUMENT IS WAR
 4.2 The Completion of ARGUMENT IS WAR

5 The Linguistic Instantiation of ARGUMENT IS WAR
 5.1 Metalinguistic Signals and Deliberate Metaphors
 5.2 Linguistic and Semantic Signals Other Than M-Flags

6 The Pragmatic Implicature ARGUMENT IS WAR
 6.1 Ad Hoc Construction
 6.2 Metarepresentation
 6.3 Weak Implicatures
 6.4 Backwards Inference

7 Implications and Conclusions
 7.1 Summary of Evidence for ARGUMENT IS WAR
 7.2 Summary of Implications

 Linguistic and Literary Resources
 Biblical and Historical Resources
In Revelation’s history, scholars have always assumed it was about judgment. Clifford T. Winters’ Argument is War, however, demonstrates that the Apocalypse is using a conceptual metaphor to envision the restoration of Israel and, through them, the whole world.
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