Making Physicians

Tradition, Teaching, and Trials at Leiden University, 1575-1639


How did medical students become Galenic physicians in the early modern era? Making Physicians guides the reader through the ancient sources, textbooks, lecture halls, gardens, dissecting rooms, and patient bedsides in the early decades of an important medical school. Standard pedagogy combined book learning and hands-on experience. Professors and students embraced Galen’s models for integrating reason and experience, and cultivated humanist scholarship and argumentation, which shaped their study of chymistry, medical botany, and clinical practice at patients' bedsides, in private homes and in the city hospital. Following Galen’s emphasis on finding and treating the sick parts, professors correlated symptoms and the evidence from post-mortems to produce new pathological knowledge.

Prices from (excl. shipping):

Add to Cart
Evan R. Ragland, Ph.D. (2012), Indiana University Bloomington, is an Assistant Professor of History at the University of Notre Dame. He has published articles and edited volumes on the histories of early modern European science, medicine, natural philosophy, chymistry, and experimentation.
List of Illustrations

Introduction: Bodies of Knowledge in the Late Renaissance
 1 Following Galen to Find the Seats and Causes of Disease
 2 Disease Displayed in Private, Public, and Clinical Anatomies
 3 Reconstructing Intellectual Microcosms
 4 Pedagogy and Practices
 5 Making Medicines from Books, Gardens, and Chymistry
 6 Experience, Empiricism, and Experiment
 7 Plan of Chapters

1 Contexts for the Medical Curriculum
 1 Medicine for a Young Republic in the 1575 Founding
 2 University, City, State
 3 The Harvest of Trials from Earlier Sixteenth-Century Academic Medicine
 4 Experience and Experiment in Early Leiden Mixed Mathematics and Engineering
 5 The Humanist, Practical Education of Medical Professors
 6 Early Medical Curricula
 7 Conclusions

2 Ideals of Learning and Reading
 1 Ideals of Curing Bodies by Reason and Experience
 2 The Virtues of Disputation for Learning and Exams
 3 Study Guides for Sharpening the Ingenium (Wit) of the Brain
 4 Student Life and the Vices of Embodied Learners
 5 Conclusions

3 Lecturing about Philosophical Bodies
 1 Core Philosophy and Theory
 2 Basic Principles vs. Hope for Certainty
 3 Galen on Faculties, Matter, and Souls
 4 Galen among Ancient Sources on “Powers” or Faculties
 5 Early Modern Medical Discussions of Faculties
 6 Conclusions

4 Learning to Make Medicines: Reading, Viewing, Tasting, and Testing
 1 Fire and Transmutation
 2 Chymical Teaching in the Lecture Hall
 3 Cultivating Knowledge and Medicinal Simples in the Garden
 4 Naturalists Knowing Plants by Experience and Experiment
 5 God’s Medicines and Models of Making Trials
 6 Galen’s Models for Knowing Drugs and Making Trials
 7 Medieval and Early Modern Debates over Sensing and Knowing Medicinal Faculties
 8 Making and Knowing Medicines with Johannes Heurnius’ New Method
 9 Conclusions

5 Knowing and Treating the Diseased Body
 1 The Malfunctioning Seats of Diseases
 2 Seats of Diseases after Galen
 3 Knowing Material and Other Causes of Diseases
 4 Teaching Students to Treat the Faulty Part
 5 Localizing Diseases in Students’ Disputations
 6 Conclusions

6 Disease Displayed in Public and Private Anatomies
 1 Anatomy Serving the Practice of Physicians and Surgeons
 2 Piety and Decorum
 3 Disease Displayed in Public and Private Anatomies
 4 Generation and Murder
 5 Cutting to the Causes of Disease and Death
 6 Conclusions

7 Innovation and Clinical Anatomies
 1 The Pulse Controversy and Anatomical Innovation
 2 Early Clinical Training and Anatomies
 3 Founding Regular Bedside Learning at the Hospital
 4 Causes, Histories, and Therapy Displayed in Diseased Bodies
 5 Diseases and Remedies from Across the Dutch Empire
 6 Tracking Diseases by Clinical Signs and Post-Mortem Evidence
 7 Making New Knowledge of Phthisis (Consumption)
 8 Later Leiden Pedagogy and a New Theory of Phthisis
 9 Conclusions

Conclusion: A Microcosm of Medical Learning and Practices

Academic libraries, institutes, specialist historians, graduate and undergraduate students, history of medicine, history of science, history of universities, physicians with an interest in the history of medicine.
  • Collapse
  • Expand