Neoliberalism or Developmentalism

The PT Governments in the Eye of the Storm


This book collects essays on the political economy of Brazil, focusing on the federal administrations led by the Workers’ Party (PT), under Presidents Lula and Dilma Rousseff. The essays examine the economic, political, and social aspects of these governments, and a whole spectrum of policies implemented – or not – between 2003 and 2016, with implications for the subsequent period up to, and including, the administration led by Jair Bolsonaro. It is shown that those governments were neoliberal, but in different ways when compared with other administrations in that country. Their similarities and differences are examined in detail.

Contributors are: Adalmir Antonio Marquetti, Alessandro Miebach, Alfredo Saad-Filho, Ana Paula Colombi, André Singer, Andréia Galvão, Armando Boito Jr, Barbara Fritz, Cecilia Hoff, Célio Hiratuka, Claudio Castelo Branco Puty, Cristhiane Falchetti, Daniela Magalhães Prates, Denise Gentil, Eduardo Fagnani, Fabiano Santos, Fabio Luis Barbosa dos Santos, Glaison Augusto Guerrero, Guilherme Mello, Gustavo Codas Friedmann, Humberto Martins, José Dari Krein, Lena Lavinas, Lucas Salvador, Andrietta, Luiz Fernando de Paula, Luiz Filgueiras, Marcelo Arend, Patrícia Rocha Lemos, Paula Marcelino, Pedro Cezar Dutra Fonseca, Pedro Mendes Loureiro, Pedro Paulo Zuluth Bastos, Pedro Rossi, Rafael Moura, Ruy Braga, and Soraia Aparecida Cardozo.

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Alfredo Saad-Filho is Professor and Head of Department, Department of International Development. King’s College London. His main research interests include heterodox economic policy, strategies of industrial development, infl ation and stabilisation, and the labour theory of value and its applications.
Ana Paula Colombi is professor at the Federal University of Espírito Santo and a researcher at the Brazilian Centre of Studies in Trade Unionism and Labor Economics, at the State University of Campinas (unicamp). Her main areas of interest are labor economics and trade unionism.
Juan Grigera is Lecturer at the Department of International Development, King's College London. His research interests include structural transformation, social conflict, and technological innovation.

List of Figures and Tables


Notes on Contributors

  Alfredo Saad-Filho

1 Shades of Neoliberalism Brazil under the Workers’ Party (2003–2020)
  Alfredo Saad-Filho

2 Capitalist Development and Macroeconomic Policy Regimes in Brazil since 1994
  Luiz Filgueiras

3 Varieties of Developmentalism A Critical Assessment of the pt Governments
  Daniela Magalhães Prates, Barbara Fritz and Luiz Fernando de Paula

4 Puzzles of Economic Growth and Crisis under the Workers’ Party Governments
  Pedro Cezar Dutra Fonseca, Marcelo Arend and Glaison Augusto Guerrero

5 Sailing against the Wind The Rise and Crisis of a Low-Conflict Progressivism
  Gustavo Codas Friedmann and Claudio A. Castelo Branco Puty

6 The Growth Model of the pt Governments A Furtadian View of the Limits of Recent Brazilian Development
  Pedro Rossi, Guilherme Mello and Pedro Paulo Zahluth Bastos

7 The Brazilian Crises Profits, Distribution and Growth
  Adalmir Antonio Marquetti, Cecilia Hoff and Alessandro Miebach

8 Why Bolsonarism Should Be Characterized as Neofascism
  Armando Boito Jr.

9 The Failure of Dilma Rousseff’s Developmentalist Experiment
  André Singer

10 The Political Economy of Lulism and Its Aftermath
  Ruy Braga and Fábio Luis Barbosa dos Santos

11 Assessing the Developmentalist Character of the Workers’ Party Government Project
  Luiz Fernando de Paula, Fabiano Santos and Rafael Moura

12 The Limits of Dependency The Foreign Policy of Rouseff’s Administration
  Pedro Paulo Zahluth Bastos and Célio Hiratuka

13 Brazilian Labor Market From the Workers’ Party Administrations to the Bolsonaro Government
  Ana Paula Fregnani Colombi and José Dari Krein

14 A Poverty-Reducing Variety of Neoliberalism? The Workers’ Party Distributive Policies
  Pedro Mendes Loureiro

15 Brazilian Unions in the Twenty-First Century
  Andréia Galvão and Paula Marcelino

16 Social Policy since Rousseff Misrepresentation and Marginalization
  Lena Lavinas and Denise Gentil

17 The Reform of Pensions under the Workers’ Party Shades of Commodification
  Lucas Salvador Andrietta, Patrícia Rocha Lemos and Eduardo Fagnani

18 The Housing Policy under the pt Governments Between the Social Inclusion and the Commodification
  Cristhiane Falchetti

19 Tackling Regional Inequalities under the Workers’ Party Advances and Limitations
  Soraia Aparecida Cardozo and Humberto Martins


Students, scholars, and activists concerned with events in Brazil, the Pink Tide, left-wing governments, and Latin America.
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