Disciplinary Rituals in Dunhuang Buddhism


Drawing on Dunhuang manuscripts and the latest scholarship in Dunhuang and Buddhist Studies, this translation analyzes Buddhist monasticism via such topics as the organizational forms of Dunhuang Buddhist monasteries, the construction and operation of ordination platforms, ordination certificates and government ordination licenses, and meditation retreats, etc.
Assuming a pan-Asian perspective, the monograph also made trailblazing contributions to the study of Buddhist Sinicization and Sino-Indian cultural exchanges and is bound to exert long-lasting influences on the worldwide academic study of Buddhism.

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Zhan Ru is a Professor in Peking University’s School of Foreign Languages and vice president of the Peking University Orientalism Research Institute. His areas of research include Buddhist and Buddhist literature, the Indian Ministry of Buddhism, Dunhuang Buddhism, and the Buddhist system.
Prof. Zhan Ru’s book Disciplinary Rituals in Dunhuang Buddhism is a major contribution to Buddhist studies and, more specifically, the history of Buddhism in Dunhuang. It is based on a careful analysis of first-hand resources and is bound to have a lasting impact on scholarship. It traces the links between Indian Buddhist institutions and their later forms in Dunhuang and China proper. The approach of looking at institutions and phenomena in a transnational manner works especially well for Dunhuang, which stood at the intersection of Chinese, Central Asian and Indic cultures. It is becoming increasingly obvious that one cannot study Dunhuang in isolation but has to consider its interactions with other regions, cultures and languages.
Prof. Zhan Ru does a remarkable job in integrating often disconnected topics (e.g. Indian Buddhism, Dunhuang popular literature, lay associations, political history) into a coherent narrative. We are extremely grateful to Brill and the team of expert translators for making this book available for an international readership. -- Imre Galambos (University of Cambridge)
List of Figures

1 Introduction
 1.1 History of Indian Buddhist Vinaya Studies
 1.2 History of Chinese Buddhist Vinaya Studies
 1.3 A History of the Studies of the Disciplinary Rituals of Dunhuang Buddhism

2 The Organization and Character of Dunhuang’s Buddhist Temples, Meditation Caves, and Araṇya
 2.1 Preamble
 2.2 Early Monastic Regulations in China
 2.3 Administrators (Gangguan 綱管) of Dunhuang Monasteries
 2.4 The Organizational Structure of the Three Meditation Caves
 2.5 The Principle of Dhūta (Austerities) and Its Social Function Reflected in Dunhuang’s Araṇya
 2.6 Characteristics of Dunhuang’s Buddhist Temples

3 Evolution of the Ordination Platform and Dunhuang’s Fangdeng Daochang 方等道場 (Vaipulya Ordination Platform)
 3.1 Preamble
 3.2 The Origins and Formation of the Ordination Platform
 3.3 Transformation of the Ordination Platform
 3.4 Dunhuang’s Fangdeng Ordination Platforms and Lintan Dade 臨壇大德 (Ordination Platform Presiders of Great Virtue)
 3.5 Concluding Remarks

4 Research on Dunhuang’s Precept Certificates, Rites for Conferring Precepts, and Ordination Licenses
 4.1 Preamble
 4.2 The Contents of the Baguan Zhai 八關齋 (Eightfold Purificatory Observance) and Their Receipt and Upholding
 4.3 Protocols for the Rites of Conferral and Receipt of the Baguan Zhai
 4.4 The Composition and Characteristics of Dunhuang’s Baguan Zhai Certificates
 4.5 Translation and Circulation of Scriptures on the Bodhisattva Precepts
 4.6 Ritual Procedures for the Conferring and Receiving of Bodhisattva Precepts
 4.7 Certificates for Bodhisattva Precepts
 4.8 Ordination Licenses

5 A New Investigation of Upavasatha Texts and Upavasatha Procedures
 5.1 Origins
 5.2 Prātimokṣa and Upavasatha in Sectarian Buddhism
 5.3 Upavasatha Texts and Upavasatha Procedures in Dunhuang Buddhism
 5.4 Concluding Remarks

6 Examination of the Dunhuang Summer Retreat
 6.1 Preamble
 6.2 The Vinaya Piṭaka ‘Retreat Khandhaka’ and the Form of Retreat in Early Buddhism
 6.3 Summer Retreat and Winter Retreat in Dunhuang Buddhism
 6.4 Concluding Remarks

7 Stotra (Hymns) in Pure Land Teachings at Dunhuang
 7.1 Zanwen 讚文 (Extolment), Jizan 偈讚 (Extol Verse) and the Pure Land Extolment Texts
 7.2 Research on Extolment Verses of Pure Land Teachings
 7.3 Concluding Remarks

8 Analysis of Dunhuang Zhaiwen, Zhai Gatherings, and Dharma Gatherings
 8.1 Presenting the Problematic
 8.2 The Origins and Evolution of Zhai
 8.3 Zhai Gatherings and Folk Beliefs in the Tang and Five Dynasties
 8.4 Dunhuang Zhaiwen
 8.5 Zhai Wanwen 齋琬文 (Zhai Model Texts) and Buddhist Procedures
 8.6 Zhai Gatherings in Dunhuang
 8.7 Dunhuang Zhai Gatherings and Folk Beliefs
 8.8 Dunhuang Wuzhe (Non-Obstructing) Great Gatherings

9 General Conclusion
 9.1 Features of Dunhuang Buddhist Communities
 9.2 Disciplinary Rituals and the State Control
 9.3 Multi-Facetted Beliefs about the Pure Land in Dunhuang
 9.4 Formation of Dunhuang Buddhist Rituals

Appendix 1: Translations of Dunhuang Manuscripts and Inscriptions
 Appendix 2: Charts and Lists
Scholars of Asian studies, East Asian Studies, Sinology, Japanology, Buddhology, Art History, Cultural and Religious transmission and interaction, and World History
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