The Bourbon Reforms and the Remaking of Spanish Frontier Missions


The Bourbon monarchs who ascended the Spanish throne in 1700 attempted to reform the colonial system they had inherited, and, in particular, to make administration more efficient and cost-effective. This book analyses one aspect of the Bourbon reforms, which was the efforts to transform frontier missions, to make the missions more cost-effective, and to accelerate the integration of indigenous peoples in northern Mexico to European cultural norms. In some instances, the Crown had funded missions for more than a century, but with minimal results. The book attempts to show how the mission programs changed, and what the consequences – especially demographic – were for the indigenous peoples brought to live on the missions.

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Robert H. Jackson, Ph.D. (1988), University of California at Berkeley, specialises in Latin American history. He is an independent scholar living in Mexico City. His research interests include historical demography, missions, and liberalism.
General Series Editor’s Preface
Initial Thoughts
List of Illustrations and Tables

1 Introduction
 1 Setting the Stage for the Bourbon Reforms under Carlos III
  1.1 Defining Mission Reform
  1.2 Laying Out the Interpretation

Part 1: From Hapsburg to Bourbon Missions

2 Preliminaries
 1 The Organization of Evangelization in Cholula
 2 The Organization of the Evangelization of the Province of Huaxtepec
 3 Franciscan Reform: The Apostolic Colleges
 4 Secularization of Rural Doctrinas
 5 The Jesuits in Spanish America
 6 Conclusions

3 The Sierra Gorda and Texas Missions
 1 The Missions of Coahuila-Texas
 2 The Failure of Congregation on the Texas Gulf Coast
 3 Conclusions

4 The Bourbon Reforms and the Ex-Jesuit Missions of Baja California and Northern Sonora
 1 The Proverbial Bull in the China Shop: The Franciscans and the Reorganization of the Baja California Missions
 2 Reform of the Ex-Jesuit Missions of Northern Sonora
 3 Conclusions

Part 2: Organizing the New California Missions, 1769–1834

Introduction to Part 2

5 The Jesuit Missions among the Guaraní
 1 Treaty Making, Conflict, and Guaraní Diaspora
 2 The Post-Jesuit Expulsion Reform of the Guaraní Missions
 3 Guaraní Mission Demographic Patterns
 4 Mortality Crises, 1733–1740
 5 Demographic Patterns on Los Santos Reyes Yapeyú Mission
 6 Demographic Patterns on San Lorenzo Mission
 7 Gender and Age Structure of the Mission Populations
 8 Conclusions

6 Congregation: The Formation of the California Mission Communities
 1 Congregation on the San Francisco Bay Area Missions
 2 Congregation on the Central Coast Region Missions
 3 Conclusions

7 The Mission Urban Plan, Social Control, and Indigenous Resistance
 1 The Mission Urban Plan and Social Control on the Chumash Missions
 2 Urban Plan on the San Francisco Bay Region Missions
 3 The Urban Plan on the Central Coast Missions
 4 Social Control and Resistance
 5 Conclusions

8 Demographic Patterns on the Missions
 1 Demographic Patterns on the Chumash Missions
 2 Demographic Patterns on the San Francisco Bay Region Missions
 3 Demographic Patterns on the Central Coast Region Missions
 4 Conclusions

9 An Alternative Pattern of Development: San Diego and San Luis Rey Missions
 1 The Ideal of Congregation
 2 Later Patterns of Development on San Diego Mission, 1810–1834
 3 Conclusions

10 Non-indigenous Settlers in California
 1 The Supply of the Presidios
 2 Demographic Patterns of the Soldier-Settler Populations
 3 The Demographic Profile of the Villa de Branciforte
 4 Conclusion

11 Conclusions

Epilogue: Saint or Sinner? Reformers and Missionaries

Appendix 1: The Jesuit Presence in Spanish America in 1767
Appendix 2: Population, Baptisms, and Burials on Selected Texas Missions
Appendix 3: The Population and Vital Rates of Selected Baja California Missions
Appendix 4: The Population and Vital Rates of Selected Jesuit Missions among the Guaraní
Appendix 5: The Population and Vital Rates of Selected California Missions and the Villa de Branciforte
Selected Bibliography
This study will be of interest to specialists in historical demography, colonial Latin American history, the history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Borderlands history.
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