Unravelling the Social Formation

Free Trade, the State and Business Associations in Turkey


In Unravelling the Social Formation: Free Trade, the State and Business Associations in Turkey, Akif Avci examines the role of business associations and the state in Turkey in analysing the dialectical relationship between global free trade and Turkish social formation since 2002. The manuscript constructs a three-levels analysis based on the social relations of production, forms of state and world order. It explores the class characteristics of the business associations, the role of the Turkish state in the process of integration into global capitalism, and at the same time, internalisation of the global class relations inside Turkish social formation. It offers a fresh evaluation of imperialism theories and the uneven and combined development (U&CD) approach from a neo-Gramscian perspective.

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Akif Avci, PhD (2019), Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, is Doctor of International Political Economy at that same university. He has published articles in different journals, such as the Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, Capital & Class, and New Middle Eastern Studies.

List of Figures and Tables


Introduction On the Political Economy of Turkey

1The New Phase of Imperialism and Uneven and Combined Development
 1 Free Trade/Transnationalisation of Production and the Role of the State

 2 Internationalisation of the State and Its Internal Functions

 3 Conclusion

2A Historical Materialist Analysis of Capitalism in Turkey
 1 The Making of Capitalism in Turkey: The Defining Role of Uneven and Combined Development

 2 Industrial Capital Accumulation Based on the isi Model until the 1980s

 3 Transition to Neoliberalism: Integration into Free Trade and the Changing Role of the State

 4 Transnationalisation of Productive Capital and the akp

 5 Regional Expansion of Turkish Capital through Free Trade Agreements

 6 The Role of the State in the Expansion of the Base of Production

 7 Conclusion

3The Formation of tnc, Global Free Trade, tusiad and the State
 1 The Social Formation in Turkey and the Development of tusiad

 2 The Class Characteristics of tusiad Affiliates

 3 tusiad and Power Bloc: The Internal Relations between tusiad and the akp

 4 The Shift in Global Free Trade and the Uneven Trajectory of tnc in Turkey

 5 Conclusion

4musiad, the State and Global Integration
 1 The Emergence of musiad and the Social Formation in Turkey

 2 A Class Based Analysis of musiad

 3 Different Capital Fractions within musiad

 4 Configurations of Relations in the Power Bloc

 5 Reorganising the Power Bloc through Public Administration

 6 Contradictions at the State Level

 7 The Defining Role of Uneven and Combined Development

 8 Conclusion

5tuskon, the State and Free Trade
 1 The Material Basis of tuskon

 2 The Formation of the Relationship between the State and tuskon

 3 The Collapse of the Relationship and 15 July Failed Coup Attempt

 4 The Combination of tuskon Affiliated Companies with Global Free Trade

 5 Conclusion

6Conclusions to the Theoretical Arguments of the Book
 1 From the Abstract to the Concrete: A Class-Based Analysis of Business Associations

 2 Concluding Remarks: The Changing Tendencies of Free Trade and the Transformation of the State



All interested in the Political Economy of Turkey and the broader Global South, and anyone concerned with the state theory and the changing dynamics of free trade.
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