The Imperial Creation of Ethnicity

Chinese Policies and the Ethnic Turn in Inner Mongolian Politics, 1900-1930


How did inter-ethnic solidarity become attenuated in the era of the Chinese imperial transformation (1900-1930)? Based on Inner Mongolian cases, this book examines the transformations effective in the policy domains of land affairs, military organization, and law, which were initiated to strengthen state centralization, yet resulted in the sharpening of ethnic boundaries.
Using unpublished archival sources, this book benefits from three key strengths. It addresses the question of Mongol-Han relationship in the early Republican period (1911-1930), it illuminates the details of imperial administration and its changes along with the shift of the regime, and it explores the theoretical potentials of the near frontier approach and positions the Chinese imperial transition within a comparative perspective.

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Liping Wang, Ph.D. (2013), the University of Chicago, is Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Education at Peking University. She has published many articles on ethnicity, nationalism and knowledge production. Her publications appeared in American Journal of Sociology, Theory and Society, and Modern China, among others.
List of Tables, Maps and Figures

 1 Ethnogenesis in the Near Frontier
 2 The Administration of the Empire
 3 The Organization of the Book

1 Mapping Out the Mongolian Identities
 1 The Center-Periphery Model
 2 The Frontier Space of Inner Mongolia
 3 The Feudal Tradition of Mongols
 4 The Mongolian Banners
 5 The Mongol-Manchu Alliance
 6 The Incorporation of Mongols into the Qing State
 7 The Exceptional Case of Hulun Buir
 8 Empires and Cross-Identifications

2 Land Reform and State Centralization
 1 A Natural Erosion of Nomadic Feudalism
 2 The Late Qing Land Reform
 3 The Changing Utility of Land in fangken
 4 Colonization or Political Consolidation?
 5 The Nexuses of Ruling Powers
 6 The Puzzle of Mongolian Cooperation

3 Revolution, Warlordism and Ethnic Confrontation
 1 The Revolutionary Turbulence
 2 Mongolian Reactions to the Revolution
 3 Intrusion of Provincial Governments
 4 Emerging Local Conflicts
 5 The Age of Warlordism
 6 Transforming the Frontier Governance Structure
 7 Military Colonization

4 Ethnicizing Boundaries in the Legal Jurisdiction
 1 Legal Pluralism under the Imperial Rule
 2 The Motley Jurisdictions in Eastern Inner Mongolia
 3 Navigating the Disparate Legal Spaces
 4 Reshuffling the Mongolian Legal Jurisdiction
 5 The End of Legal Pluralism?

5 The Mongolian Shift in Hulun Buir
 1 Tribal Soldiers in a Mobile Garrison System
 2 Territorializing the Governments in Hulun Buir
 3 Territorial Administration in Hulun Buir
 4 Becoming Mongols
 5 Striving for Mongolian Autonomy
 6 The Intellectual Construct
 7 Territorialization and Ethno-Genesis


Appendix 1: Administrative Experiences of the Frontier Military Officials, 1900–1916

Appendix 2: Administrative Experiences of the Frontier Military Officials, 1917–1928
Glossary of Terms
Scholars of late imperial and modern Chinese history, comparative historical sociology, as well as those interested in ethnicity, nationalism, imperial legacy, and state building.
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