Privatization in Turkey

Power Bloc, Capital Accumulation and State


In Privatization in Turkey: Power Bloc, Capital Accumulation and State, Ahmet Zaifer offers a rare look on privatization in Turkey that involves all three historical periods of Turkish privatization process -1980s and 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s- and covers different forms of privatization from divestiture to public-private partnership. Benefiting from theoretically informed qualitative research spanning nearly a decade that has involved several interviews with key informant groups, extensive review of newspaper articles and detailed analysis of annual reports of businesses, Ahmet Zaifer convincingly proves that the acceleration of privatization in Turkey has not only provided advantages to so-called favourable capital groups and the government elites, but also consolidated the position of Capital in General at the expense of labouring-popular classes and the natural environment of the entire country.

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Ahmet Zaifer Ph.D. (2016), SOAS, University of London, is Associate Professor of International Relations at the University of Kyrenia. He has published book reviews, translations and many articles on privatization and Turkey. Recent articles have appeared in Critical Sociology, Review of Radical Political Economics, and Journal of Historical Sociology.

List of Illustrations

1Introducing the Privatization in Turkey
 1 Theoretical Approaches to Privatization
 1.1 Liberal Approaches

 1.2 Institutionalist Approaches

 1.3 Marxian Approaches

 2 An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Privatization Process
 2.1 Contemporary Capitalism Is the Context that Brought Privatization Policy to the Fore

 2.2 The State Is an Integral Element of the Privatization Processes

 2.3 A Power Bloc Is the Key Class Agent behind Privatization

 2.4 Privatization Is a Constitutive Element of Domestic Accumulation Strategies

 3 Understanding Privatization in Turkey – the Structure of the Book

2The Development of soe s in Turkey in Historical Perspective
 1  soe s and Consolidation of Capitalism in Turkey: 1923–1945

 2  soe s and Post-war Expansion of Capitalism in Turkey: 1946–1960

 3  soe s , Duty Losses and Class Compromises: 1961–1980

 4 Conclusion

3To Privatize or Not to Privatize? Interventions to Privatization Process: 1984–2001
 1 The World Bank and Foreignization Campaign of the Power Bloc: 1984–1993

 2 The imf Programs, Intra-capital and Intra-state Conflicts: 1994–2001
 2.1  tüsİad -based Holdings and Privatization

 2.2 Intra-capital Conflicts and Privatization

 2.3 Intra-state Conflicts and Privatization

 3 Conclusion

4The Acceleration of Privatization in the Post-2001 Era: 2002 to 2009
 1 Privatization and Internal Restructuring of Accumulation Strategies

 2 Privatization and Different Fractions of the Power Bloc
 2.1 Privatization and tüsİad  Holdings

 2.2 Privatization and Islamic-Influenced Anatolian Capital Groups

 2.3 Privatization and Foreign Capital

 2.4 Privatization and the akp Government

 3 Privatization and Resistance
 3.1 Sporadic Labor Resistances: Seka, Tüpraş …

 3.2 Türk-Metal Union and Domestic Private Iron-Steel Companies: Erdemir

 4 Institutional Reforms and Overcoming Barriers

 5 Conclusion

5The Expansion of Privatization Public-Private Partnerships: 2010–2018
 1 Conceptualization of the ppp Phenomenon

 2 Broad Contours of ppp Implementations in Turkey during the 2010s

 3 Dynamics behind Acceleration of ppp  s in Turkey during the 2010s
 3.1  Domestic Capital Accumulation

 3.2  Power Bloc

 3.3  State

 4 Case Studies
 4.1  Bosporus (Eurasia) Tunnel

 4.2  Gebze-Orhangazi-İzmir Motorway (incl. Osmangazi Bridge)

 4.3  Third International Airport for İstanbul

 4.4  Northern Marmara Motorway (incl. Third Bosporus Bridge)

 4.5  Dardanelles Bridge and Kınalı-Balıkesir Motorway (Malkara-Çanakkale Section)

 4.6  Healthcare Campus Projects (City Hospitals)

 5 Conclusion

6Comparing Alternatives to Privatization
 1 Implications of the Turkish Privatization Experience

 2 What Is a Substantial Alternative to Privatization?
 2.1  Traditional State Ownership and Control

 2.2  Corporatization

 2.3  Democratic Control

 3 The Question of Strategy: How to Construct and Defend a Substantial Alternative?
 3.1  Building Alliances

 3.2  Making the State an Operationally Contested Space/Process

 4 Conclusion

Appendix 1 tüsİad -based Conglomerates

Appendix 2Islamic-Influenced and/or Anatolian Companies Having Close Relations with akp-Erdoğan

Appendix 3Divestitures in Turkey between 2010 and 2018



All interested in the political economy of Turkey, and anyone concerned with privatization of SOEs, implementation of PPP-based mega projects and the transformation of the state-business relations in Turkey.
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