The Communist Women’s Movement, 1920-1922

Proceedings, Resolutions, and Reports


Volume Editors: and
The Communist Women’s Movement (CWM), virtually unknown today, was the world’s first truly international revolutionary organisation of women. Formed in 1920, the CWM mapped out a programme for women’s emancipation; participated in struggles for women’s rights; and worked to advance women’s participation in the Communist movement.

The present volume, part of a series on the Communist International in Lenin’s time, contains proceedings and resolutions of CWM conferences, along with reports on its work around the world. Most of the contents here are published in English for the first time, with almost half appearing for the first time in any language.

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Mike Taber is editor of The Communist Movement at a Crossroads: Plenums of the Communist International’s Executive Committee, 1922–1923 and Under the Socialist Banner: Resolutions of the Second International 1889–1912. He has also edited and prepared collections by Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, James P. Cannon, and Maurice Bishop.

Daria Dyakonova is a history researcher who teaches at the International University in Geneva. She has recently finished a Ph.D. thesis on Canadian Communist Youth and ties with the International Communist Movement during the interwar period and has published articles on Canadian Communism and the Communist International.

Editorial Introduction
Daria Dyakonova

About This Edition

List of Abbreviations

 1 The Tasks of the Working Women’s Movement in the Soviet Republic
 2 Resolution on the Need to Draw Women Workers into the Struggle for Socialism, First Congress of Communist International, 1919

First International Conference of Communist Women 30 July–3 August 1920

30 JULY 1920, EVENING. Opening Ceremony
Greetings by Bukharin. Messages to Zetkin and Kollontai. Greetings by Levi; Wolfstein; Ströhmer; Balabanova; Newbold; Linderot; greetings from Turkey and Poland; Münzenberg; Gopner. Appeal to Polish working women.
31 JULY 1920, 12:00 NOON. The Third International and Working Women
Report by Yaroslavsky. Discussion: Roy; Karymova; Wolfstein. Manifesto to the Working Women of the World.
31 JULY 1920, 7:00 P.M. Delegate and Country Reports
Wolfstein (Germany); Ströhmer (Austria); Linderot (Sweden); Kovács (Hungary); Newbold (Britain); Rosmer (France).
AUGUST 1920, 12:00 NOON. Delegate and Country Reports (Continued)
Balabanova (Italy); Maksimov (Bulgaria); Kazhukhanen (Finland); Nielsen (Denmark); Tumu (Latvia); Biti (Lithuania); Roy (Mexico); Dvorkina (Turkestan). Written reports: Norway; China; Korea; Iran; India; the Caucasus. The Situation of Working Women and Peasant Women in Soviet Russia: (a) report on economic and civil rights by Armand; (b) report on liberation from domestic bondage by Nikolaeva. Report on the RCP’s methods of work among women by Armand.
AUGUST 1920, 7:00 P.M. Women’s Section of the Comintern
Report on theses of Russian delegation by Armand. Discussion on theses. Conference closing.
Appendix: List of Delegates

Guidelines for the Communist Women’s Movement

Second International Conference of Communist Women 9–15 June 1921

Conference Call

JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Inauguration of Conference
Convening by Kollontai. Greetings by Thalheimer; Kalinin; Lozovsky; Gusev; Zetkin; Bukharin; Tskhakaia; Colliard; Podchufarova; Bloor; Chernyshova; Musabekova; Nam Man-ch’un; Kollontai.
11 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. International Women’s Secretariat
Zetkin convening. Election of committees. Agenda and rules. Message from Germany. Report on International Women’s Secretariat by Kollontai. Zetkin protest. Report on strengthening international ties by Zetkin.
11 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Discussion on International Women’s Secretariat
Braunthal; Bloch; Nikolaeva; Lilina; Colliard; Roland-Holst; Linderot; Csirs; Zorina; Areshian; Křenová; Moirova; Vinogradskaia. Kollontai summary.
12 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. Forms and Methods of Work
Gliński greetings. Report on forms and methods of Communist work among women by Kollontai.
13 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. Discussion on Forms and Methods of Work
Greetings from Iran. Discussion on report: Volnaia; Kiiskinen; Smidovich; Golta; Zetkin; Mildner; Bloor; Nikolaeva; Krupskaia.
13 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Discussion on Forms and Methods of Work (Continued)
Reply to Zetkin protest. Continued discussion on report: Maimunkova; Smythe; Joska; Nam Man-ch’un; Areshian; Wertheim; Faber; Kudelli; Yanson. Kollontai summary.
14 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. Women in the Revolutionary Struggle
Report on participation of women in the struggle for power and the dictatorship of the proletariat by Lilina. Report on the economic position of women by Sturm. Discussion on reports: Wertheim; Volnaia; Ströhmer; Geffke.
15 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. The Fight for Women’s Equality
Report on fight for political equality by Zetkin. Discussion on report: Smythe; Stal’; Moirova; Lilina; Podchufarova; Kaligna; Montagnana; Roland-Holst; Linderot; Leiciague; Bloch; Joska; Ströhmer; Sturm. Zetkin summary.
15 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Greetings by Trotsky; Women of the East; Conference Closing
Trotsky greetings. Voting on resolutions. Motion on International Women’s Day. Credentials Commission report by Stal’. Greetings to Lenin and Zinoviev. Greetings from Eastern women: Tarijanova; Kaboulbaeva; Koussoumbaeva; Baisbekova. Closing of conference.
List of Delegates

Resolutions of Second Conference
 Greetings to the Heroes of the Struggle and the Martyrs of the White Terror
 Resolution on International Ties between Communist Women and the International Communist Women’s Secretariat
 Resolution on Forms and Methods of Communist Work among Women
 Theses on Methods and Forms of Work of Communist Parties among Women
 Trade-Union Work
 The Participation of Women in the Struggle for the Capture and Consolidation of Proletarian Political Power and for the Proletarian Dictatorship
 The Integration of Women into the Struggle for the Proletarian Dictatorship
 Equal Political Rights for Women in Law and in Practice
 Manifesto to Working Women of the Whole World
 Appeal to the Working Women of All Countries

Women’s Correspondents Conferences, 1922

The First Conference of International Women’s Correspondents (25–26 January 1922)
Report from Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale
First Correspondents Conference Resolutions and Appeals
 International Women’s Day and the United Front of the Proletariat
 Resolution on International Communist Women’s Day

The Second Conference of International Women’s Correspondents (24–25 October 1922)
Report from Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale
Second Correspondents Conference Theses and Resolutions
 Resolution on the Organisational Report of the International Women’s Secretariat
 Resolution on Work in the Trade Unions
 Resolution on Work in the Cooperatives
 Resolution on International Workers’ Aid for Soviet Russia

Near East Women’s Conference, 1921

The Communist Women’s Conference for the Near East in Tiflis (12 December 1921)
Report from Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale
Resolution of the Tiflis Conference
Forms and Methods of Communist Work among Women of the Near East

The Communist Women’s Movement around the World

 1 Germany
 2 Czechoslovakia
 3 France
 4 Bulgaria
 5 Dutch East Indies
 6 Soviet Russia
The book will be of interest to academic libraries, institutes and historians including (post)graduate students specializing in the history of communism, socialism, feminism and gender during the interwar period.
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