The Communist Women’s Movement (CWM), virtually unknown today, was the world’s first truly international revolutionary organisation of women. Formed in 1920, the CWM mapped out a programme for women’s emancipation; participated in struggles for women’s rights; and worked to advance women’s participation in the Communist movement.
The present volume, part of a series on the Communist International in Lenin’s time, contains proceedings and resolutions of CWM conferences, along with reports on its work around the world. Most of the contents here are published in English for the first time, with almost half appearing for the first time in any language.
Mike Taber is editor of The Communist Movement at a Crossroads: Plenums of the Communist International’s Executive Committee, 1922–1923 and Under the Socialist Banner: Resolutions of the Second International 1889–1912. He has also edited and prepared collections by Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, James P. Cannon, and Maurice Bishop.
Daria Dyakonova is a history researcher who teaches at the International University in Geneva. She has recently finished a Ph.D. thesis on Canadian Communist Youth and ties with the International Communist Movement during the interwar period and has published articles on Canadian Communism and the Communist International.
Editorial Introduction Daria Dyakonova
About This Edition
List of Abbreviations
Prologue 1 The Tasks of the Working Women’s Movement in the Soviet Republic
2 Resolution on the Need to Draw Women Workers into the Struggle for Socialism, First Congress of Communist International, 1919
First International Conference of Communist Women 30 July–3 August 1920
30 JULY 1920, EVENING. Opening Ceremony Greetings by Bukharin. Messages to Zetkin and Kollontai. Greetings by Levi; Wolfstein; Ströhmer; Balabanova; Newbold; Linderot; greetings from Turkey and Poland; Münzenberg; Gopner. Appeal to Polish working women. 31 JULY 1920, 12:00 NOON. The Third International and Working Women Report by Yaroslavsky. Discussion: Roy; Karymova; Wolfstein. Manifesto to the Working Women of the World. 31 JULY 1920, 7:00 P.M. Delegate and Country Reports Wolfstein (Germany); Ströhmer (Austria); Linderot (Sweden); Kovács (Hungary); Newbold (Britain); Rosmer (France). 1 AUGUST 1920, 12:00 NOON. Delegate and Country Reports (Continued) Balabanova (Italy); Maksimov (Bulgaria); Kazhukhanen (Finland); Nielsen (Denmark); Tumu (Latvia); Biti (Lithuania); Roy (Mexico); Dvorkina (Turkestan). Written reports: Norway; China; Korea; Iran; India; the Caucasus. The Situation of Working Women and Peasant Women in Soviet Russia: (a) report on economic and civil rights by Armand; (b) report on liberation from domestic bondage by Nikolaeva. Report on the RCP’s methods of work among women by Armand. 1 AUGUST 1920, 7:00 P.M. Women’s Section of the Comintern Report on theses of Russian delegation by Armand. Discussion on theses. Conference closing. Appendix: List of Delegates
Guidelines for the Communist Women’s Movement
Second International Conference of Communist Women 9–15 June 1921
9 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Inauguration of Conference Convening by Kollontai. Greetings by Thalheimer; Kalinin; Lozovsky; Gusev; Zetkin; Bukharin; Tskhakaia; Colliard; Podchufarova; Bloor; Chernyshova; Musabekova; Nam Man-ch’un; Kollontai. 11 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. International Women’s Secretariat Zetkin convening. Election of committees. Agenda and rules. Message from Germany. Report on International Women’s Secretariat by Kollontai. Zetkin protest. Report on strengthening international ties by Zetkin. 11 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Discussion on International Women’s Secretariat Braunthal; Bloch; Nikolaeva; Lilina; Colliard; Roland-Holst; Linderot; Csirs; Zorina; Areshian; Křenová; Moirova; Vinogradskaia. Kollontai summary. 12 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. Forms and Methods of Work Gliński greetings. Report on forms and methods of Communist work among women by Kollontai. 13 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. Discussion on Forms and Methods of Work Greetings from Iran. Discussion on report: Volnaia; Kiiskinen; Smidovich; Golta; Zetkin; Mildner; Bloor; Nikolaeva; Krupskaia. 13 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Discussion on Forms and Methods of Work (Continued) Reply to Zetkin protest. Continued discussion on report: Maimunkova; Smythe; Joska; Nam Man-ch’un; Areshian; Wertheim; Faber; Kudelli; Yanson. Kollontai summary. 14 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. Women in the Revolutionary Struggle Report on participation of women in the struggle for power and the dictatorship of the proletariat by Lilina. Report on the economic position of women by Sturm. Discussion on reports: Wertheim; Volnaia; Ströhmer; Geffke. 15 JUNE 1921, MORNING SESSION. The Fight for Women’s Equality Report on fight for political equality by Zetkin. Discussion on report: Smythe; Stal’; Moirova; Lilina; Podchufarova; Kaligna; Montagnana; Roland-Holst; Linderot; Leiciague; Bloch; Joska; Ströhmer; Sturm. Zetkin summary. 15 JUNE 1921, EVENING SESSION. Greetings by Trotsky; Women of the East; Conference Closing Trotsky greetings. Voting on resolutions. Motion on International Women’s Day. Credentials Commission report by Stal’. Greetings to Lenin and Zinoviev. Greetings from Eastern women: Tarijanova; Kaboulbaeva; Koussoumbaeva; Baisbekova. Closing of conference. List of Delegates
Resolutions of Second Conference Greetings to the Heroes of the Struggle and the Martyrs of the White Terror
Resolution on International Ties between Communist Women and the International Communist Women’s Secretariat
Resolution on Forms and Methods of Communist Work among Women
Theses on Methods and Forms of Work of Communist Parties among Women
The Participation of Women in the Struggle for the Capture and Consolidation of Proletarian Political Power and for the Proletarian Dictatorship
The Integration of Women into the Struggle for the Proletarian Dictatorship
Equal Political Rights for Women in Law and in Practice
Manifesto to Working Women of the Whole World
Appeal to the Working Women of All Countries
Women’s Correspondents Conferences, 1922
The First Conference of International Women’s Correspondents (25–26 January 1922) Report from Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale First Correspondents Conference Resolutions and Appeals International Women’s Day and the United Front of the Proletariat
Resolution on International Communist Women’s Day
The Second Conference of International Women’s Correspondents (24–25 October 1922) Report from Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale Second Correspondents Conference Theses and Resolutions Resolution on the Organisational Report of the International Women’s Secretariat
Resolution on Work in the Trade Unions
Resolution on Work in the Cooperatives
Resolution on International Workers’ Aid for Soviet Russia
Near East Women’s Conference, 1921
The Communist Women’s Conference for the Near East in Tiflis (12 December 1921) Report from Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale Resolution of the Tiflis Conference Forms and Methods of Communist Work among Women of the Near East
The Communist Women’s Movement around the World
5 Dutch East Indies
6 Soviet Russia
Chronology Glossary Bibliography Index
The book will be of interest to academic libraries, institutes and historians including (post)graduate students specializing in the history of communism, socialism, feminism and gender during the interwar period.