Brazilian Bourgeoisie and Foreign Policy


What were the changes in the international position of the Brazilian state during the Lula and Cardoso administrations? How were the classes and class fractions represented? These are the questions that Tatiana Berringer's work seeks to answer. Using the theoretical instruments of the Marxist Nicos Poulantzas, the book identifies the class interests that directed the international action of the Brazilian state. With notable originality, the text presents, theoretically and empirically, a truly consistent Marxist analysis of Brazilian foreign policy, as well as a rich interpretation of the class struggle in current Brazilian politics. The author offers the reader her reflections on the political crisis of 2016 and the foreign policy of the Dilma, Temer, and Bolsonaro governments.

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Tatiana Berringer is Assistant Professor of International Relations at Federal University of ABC (Brazil). She is a member of the editorial board of Crítica Marxista (Brazil) and of the Brazilian Foreign Policy and International Insertion Observatory ( She coordinates the Social Classes and Foreign Policy Group Research (CNPQ).



List of Figures and Tables

Abbreviations and Acronyms


1Power Bloc: Brazilian Theory and Policy
 1 Theory: The Power Bloc and International Relations

 2 Theory: Power Bloc and Foreign Policy Analysis

2The  fhc  Governments: Neoliberalism, Power Bloc and Foreign Policy
 1 Neoliberalism

 2 Neoliberalism and the Power Bloc in Brazil

 3 Foreign Policy in the fhc Governments
 3.1 Adherence to the Missile Technology Control Regime ( mtcr )

 3.2 The Efforts to Reactivate the InterAmerican Treaty for Reciprocal Assistance ( itra )

 3.3  ftaa ,  mercosur  and the Internal Bourgeoisie

 3.4 Regional Politics between 1998 and 2000: The  mercosur  Crisis and the Launching of the  irsa i 

 3.5 The Lafer Administration and the Brazilian State’s Passive Subordination to Imperialism

 3.6 The 2002 Elections

 3.7 The  ftaa  and the 2002 Elections

 3.8 The Internal Bourgeoisie and the 2002 Election

 3.9 The  pt  and the 2002 Elections

3The Lula Governments: Neo-developmentalism, Power Bloc and Foreign Policy
 1 Neo-developmentalism and Power Bloc
 1.1 A Brief Review of Some of the Analytical Literature on the Lula Governments’ Social and Economic Policies

 2 Foreign Policy during the Lula Governments
 2.1 South-South Coalitions

 2.2 Haiti

 2.3 Regional Integration

 2.4 Africa

 2.5 The Middle East

 2.6 China

 2.7 European Union

 2.8 The  imf 

 2.9 The United States

 2.10 Defense Policy

 2.11 The Lula Governments’ Foreign Policy and the Neo-developmentalist Front

 2.12 The Brazilian State’s Position in Regard to Imperialism

 2.13 The Political Organization of the Neo-developmentalist Front

 2.14 The Internal Bourgeoisie and the South-South Foreign Policy

 2.15 Contradictions among Sectors Composing the Internal Bourgeoisie

 2.16 The Unstable Equilibrium of Compromises and Foreign Policy

 2.17 The Party-Political Dispute and Foreign Policy

4Brazil and South America
 1 Brazilian State and South America: Imperialism, Sub-imperialism and Neo-developmentalism
 1.1 Brazilian Imperialism

 1.2 Brazilian Sub-imperialism

 1.3 Neo-developmentalism and Regional Politics

 2 People’s Movements and Unionism in Relation to Regional Integration Processes in South America
 2.1 Brazilian People’s Movements and Unionism and Regional Integration in the 1980s and 1990s

 2.2 The People’s Classes and Regional Integration during the  pt  Governments

5Brazil under  fhc  and Lula

6Power Bloc and Foreign Policy in the Dilma, Temer and Bolsonaro Governments
 1 The Dilma Government: Foreign Policy, Political Crisis and Power Bloc
 1.1 Foreign Policy in the Dilma Governments

 1.2 The Power Bloc, the Political Crisis and Foreign Policy

 2 The Temer Government and the Return to Passive Subordination
 2.1 Brazil’s Trade and Production Structures Compared with the World

 2.2 The Brazilian State’s Re-embracing of Passive Subordination

 2.3 Decadent External Insertion and Dependent Productive Structure

 2.4 ‘Weak Meat’

 3 The Bolsonaro Government and Its Explicit Passive Subordination to Imperialism: The Neofascist Alliance
 3.1 Foreign Policies of the Bolsonaro Government and the Trump Government: The Neofascist Alliance

 3.2 A New Stage in Brazil-USA Relations: The Biden Government



This book will be of interest to International Relations students and researchers, Social Sciences students and researchers, Leftist Activists, and diplomats.
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