A History of Hegelianism in Golden Age Denmark, Tome II

The Martensen Period: 1837-1841, 2nd Revised and Augmented Edition


This is the second volume in a three-volume work dedicated to exploring the influence of G.W.F. Hegel’s philosophical thinking in Golden Age Denmark. The work demonstrates that the largely overlooked tradition of Danish Hegelianism played a profound and indeed constitutive role in many spheres of the Golden Age culture.
This second tome treats the most intensive period in the history of the Danish Hegel reception, namely, the years from 1837 to 1841. The main figure in this period is the theologian Hans Martensen who made Hegel’s philosophy a sensation among the students at the University of Copenhagen in the late 1830s. This period also includes the publication of Johan Ludvig Heiberg’s Hegelian journal, Perseus, and Frederik Christian Sibbern’s monumental review of it, which represented the most extensive treatment of Hegel’s philosophy in the Danish language at the time. During this period Hegel’s philosophy flourished in unlikely genres such as drama and lyric poetry. During these years Hegelianism enjoyed an unprecedented success in Denmark until it gradually began to be perceived as a dangerous trend.

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Jon Stewart is a Research Fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. He has worked for many years in the field of nineteenth-century Continental philosophy with a specialization in Hegel and Kierkegaard.
Preface to the Second Edition
List of Illustrations

Introduction: The Martensen Period of Danish Hegelianism
 I The Break with the Initial Period
 II Theses of the Present Tome

1 Martensen’s Breakthrough: 1837
 I Martensen’s Review of Heiberg’s Introductory Lecture to the Logic Course
 II Møller’s Article on Immortality
 III Heiberg’s Conflict with the Maanedsskrift for Litteratur
 IV Heiberg’s First Volume of Perseus
  A Heiberg’s “To the Readers”
  B Heiberg’s Review of Rothe
  C Martensen’s Essay on Faust
 V The First Review of Perseus
 VI Martensen’s On the Autonomy of Human Self-Consciousness
 VII Møller’s “Ontology or the System of Categories”
 VIII Martensen’s Lectures, “Speculative Dogmatics” in Winter Semester 1837–38

2 Sibbern’s Critical Response to Heiberg’s Hegelianism: 1838
 I Heiberg’s Speculative Drama, Fata Morgana
 II Martensen’s Review of Fata Morgana
 III Kierkegaard’s The Conflict between the Old and the New Soap-Cellars
 IV Sibbern’s Review of the First Volume of Perseus
  A Sibbern’s Introduction
  B Article I: Sibbern’s Critique of Hegel’s Account of the Beginning of Philosophy
  C Article ii: Sibbern’s Critique of Hegel’s Treatment of the Laws of Logic
  D Article III: Sibbern’s Critique of Hegel’s Triads and Doctrine of the Trinity
  E Article IV: Sibbern’s Critique of Heiberg’s Assessment of Danish Philosophy
  F The Rest of the Review
 V Martensen’s Lectures on Speculative Dogmatics in Summer Semester 1838
 VI Wiborg’s Pseudo-Hegelian Aesthetics
 VII Grundtvig’s Criticism of Hegel in His Lectures, The Memory of Man
 VIII The Second Volume of Heiberg’s Perseus
  A Heiberg’s “The System of Logic”
  B Carl Weis’ “On the Historical Development of the State”
  C Heiberg’s “On Painting in its Relation to the Other Fine Arts”
  D The End of Heiberg’s Perseus
 IX Kierkegaard’s From the Papers of One Still Living
 X A Review of the Second Issue of Heiberg’s Perseus
 XI Martensen’s Lectures, “The History of Modern Philosophy from Kant to Hegel”
 XII Martensen’s Lectures, “Speculative Dogmatics” in Winter Semester 1838–39

3 The Debate about Mediation and the Law of Excluded Middle: 1839
 I J.A. Bornemann’s Review of Martensen’s Dissertation
 II Mynster’s “Rationalism, Supernaturalism”
 III Heiberg’s Response to Mynster
 IV Martensen’s “Rationalism, Supernaturalism and the principium exclusi medii”
 V Schiødte’s “A few Words Concerning the Three so-called Laws of Logic”
 VI The Academic Reading Association
 VII Berg’s Outlines of a Philosophical Propaedeutic or Epistemology
 VIII Monrad’s Flying Political Papers
 IX F.C. Bornemann’s Introductory Lecture on Jurisprudence

4 The Attack on Martensen and His Students’ Hegel Fever: 1840
 I The Controversy Surrounding the Purported Arrogance of Martensen and His Students
  A The Attack on Martensen in Kjøbenhavnsposten
  B Martensen’s Response: “Philosophical Modesty in Kjøbenhavnsposten”
  C The Critic’s Response: “Philosophical Self-Importance in Fædrelandet”
  D The Article “An Attacker of Philosophy”
  E Martensen’s “Statement”
  F “The Final Contribution” from Martensen’s Critic
  G The Rest of the Debate
 II Andersen’s Criticism of Kierkegaard as a Hegelian in A Comedy in the Open Air
 III Nielsen’s Treatise on the Speculative Method’s Treatment of Sacred History
 IV Martensen’s Meister Eckhart
 V Hagen’s Review of Martensen’s Meister Eckhart
 VI Adler’s Dissertation, The Isolated Subjectivity
 VII Adler’s Review of Heiberg’s “The System of Logic”
 VIII Madvig’s A Glance at Constitutions of Antiquity
 IX A Polemic between Sibbern and Heiberg about Hegel’s Political Philosophy
 X The Role of Hegel in the Overviews of Swedish Philosophical Literature in Fædrelandet
 XI The Controversy Surrounding Clausen’s Hermeneutics of the New Testament
  A Clausen’s Criticism of Hegel’s Philosophy
  B Adler’s Response: Professor Clausen’s Judgment of the Hegelian Philosophy
  C Hagen’s Review of Clausen’s Hermeneutics of the New Testament
 XII Molbech’s Philosophy of History

5 Kierkegaard’s Hegelian Master’s Thesis: 1841
 I Heiberg’s New Poems
  A “Divine Service”: A Hegelian Philosophy of Religion
  B “A Soul after Death”: A Hegelian Satire
  C “Protestantism in Nature”
 II Martensen’s Review of Heiberg’s New Poems
 III Tryde’s Review of New Poems
 IV The Pseudo-Grundtvig’s “Open Letter against the German Heretics”
 V A Hegelian Complaint about the Journal for Foreign Theological Literature
 VI The Anonymous Article “Mynster and the Hegelians”
 VII Martensen’s Outline to a System of Moral Philosophy
 VIII Kierkegaard’s Hegelian Philosophy of History: The Concept of Irony
  A Kierkegaard’s Methodological Remarks: The Introduction
  B Kierkegaard’s Account of the Dialectical Method in “The View Made Possible”
  C Hegel’s Account of Socrates’ Daimon in “The Actualization of the View”
  D Hegel’s Account of Socrates vis-à-vis the Sophists and the Other Greek Schools in “The View Made Necessary”
  E Hegel’s Account of Socrates as the Founder of Morality in “Hegel’s View of Socrates”
  F Hegel in the Introduction to Part Two
  G Kierkegaard’s Critique of Hegel’s Account of Socratic Irony in “The World-Historical Validity of Irony”
  H Kierkegaard’s Use of Hegel’s Criticism of Romantic Irony in “Irony after Fichte”
  I Kierkegaard’s Solution: Controlled Irony
  J The Hegelian Nature of the Text
 IX Kattrup’s Translations
 X Parts One and Two of Nielsen’s Speculative Logic
 XI Kierkegaard’s Stay in Berlin
  A Schelling’s Lectures
  B Marheineke’s Lectures
  C Werder’s Lectures
  D Kierkegaard’s Notes on Hegel’s Aesthetics
 XII Brøchner and the Examination Scandal
 XIII The Transition to the Next Period of the Hegel Reception in Denmark

 I Secondary Sources on the Danish Hegel Reception
 II Primary Texts and Sources Used
 III Secondary Literature and Material Used

This work will be relevant to students and scholars interested in Continental philosophy, Hegel Studies, Kierkegaard Studies, Scandinavian Studies, Danish history, and religion in the 19th century. It is suitable for classroom use in courses on philosophy in the nineteenth century.
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