It Did Happen Here: The Rise of Fascism in Contemporary Society


This book argues and demonstrates that fascism did happen in contemporary society such as especially America, as during post-2016. It classifies and discusses the main elements of fascism to see if these reveal and replicate themselves in America post-2016. It discovers the specific syndromes of fascism in America post-2016 that reveal and replicate universal fascist features. It detects the main social causes of fascism in America post-2016. It identifies primary counterforces to fascism in America and elsewhere. Lastly, the book constructs a composite fascism index and calculates fascism indexes for Western and comparable societies like OECD countries. These indexes provide suggestive evidence that fascism happened in America and other OECD countries, even if not in Western Europe, especially Scandinavia.

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Milan Zafirovski, Ph. D. (1999), Florida International University Professor of Sociology University of North Texas, USA. He has published journal articles and monographs, including Identifying a Free Society (Brill, 2017) and Capitalist Dictatorship: A Study of Its Social Systems, Dimensions, Forms and Indicators (Brill, 2021).
List of Tables and Figures


1What Happened? Essential Elements of Fascism
 1 Extreme Conservatism
 1.1 Fascism as Conservative Totalitarianism

 1.2 Fascism as the Destination of Conservatism

 2 Extreme Anti-liberalism
 2.1 Fascism, Conservatism, and Liberalism

 2.2 Fascism versus Liberalism

 3 Extreme Anti-democracy

 4 Extreme Anti-secularism

 5 Extreme Irrationalism, Anti-rationalism, and Anti-progressivism

 6 Extreme Anti-egalitarianism, Anti-universalism, and Anti-cosmopolitanism

 7 Absolute Rule, Unconstrained Power, and All-Encompassing Domination

 8 Extreme Repression, Violence, and Terror

 9 Extreme Militarism, Offensive War, and Conquest

 10 Aggregate of Extreme Authoritarians Agents

2How Did It Happen? Syndromes of Fascism
 1 It Happens Here and Now: Fascism’s Return

 2 Syndrome 1: Fascism as Extreme Conservatism and Conservatism as Latent Fascism

 3 Syndrome 2: Fascism as Extreme Anti-liberalism

 4 Syndrome 3: Fascism as Extreme Anti-democracy

 5 Syndrome 4: Fascism as Extreme Anti-secularism

 6 Syndrome 5: Fascism as Extreme Irrationalism, Anti-rationalism, and Anti-progressivism

 7 Syndrome 6: Fascism as Extreme Anti-egalitarianism, Anti-universalism, and Anti-cosmopolitanism

 8 Syndrome 7: Fascism as Absolute Rule, Unconstrained Power, and All-Encompassing Domination

 9 Syndrome 8: Fascism as Extreme Repression, Violence, and Terror

 10 Syndrome 9: Fascism as Extreme Militarism, War, and Conquest

 11 Syndrome 10: Fascism as an Aggregate of Extreme Authoritarian Agents

3Why Did it Happen? Social Causes of Fascism
 1 Societal Causation of Fascism

 2 Conservatism as the Cause of Fascism

 3 Capitalism as the Cause of Fascism

 4 Religion as the Cause of Fascism

 5 Theocracy as the Cause of Fascism

4What Does Oppose It? Countervailing Social Forces to Fascism
 1 Counter-Fascist Social Forces

 2 Liberalism versus Fascism

 3 Democracy versus Fascism

 4 Secularism versus Fascism

 5 Rationalism and Progressivism versus Fascism

 6 Egalitarianism, Universalism, and Cosmopolitanism versus Fascism

 7 Pacifism versus Fascism

 8 Liberal Actors versus Fascism in America

5Index of Fascism
 1 A Composite Index of Fascism

 2 Indicators and Proxies of Fascism or Right-Wing Authoritarianism
 2.1 Political Indicators and Proxies

 2.2 Cultural Indicators and Proxies

 2.3 Economic Indicators and Proxies

 2.4 Civil-Society Indicators and Proxies

 2.5 Summary
 2.5.1 Political Indicators

 2.5.2 Cultural Indicators

 2.5.3 Economic Indicators

 2.5.4 Civil-Society Indicators

 3 Indexes of Fascism or Right-Wing Authoritarianism for oecd Countries

 4 Appendix




All interested in comparative and political sociology generally and particuallry anyone concerned with the nature, origins, and effects of fascism.
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