The Dilemma of Energy Security

Political and Institutional Hazards in Case of Pakistan (1947-2020)

Energy Security has emerged as a critical issue in the field of International Relations. Focusing on the case of Pakistan this book attempts to establish the main actors, dynamics, and contributing elements in the exacerbating energy security situation of the country. The Author supports that clean energy generation sources are abundantly available yet remain unutilized in the Pakistani situation. How much can South Asian Geopolitics and Pakistan’s Partition be blamed for this Energy Security crisis? What political and institutional elements have profoundly deteriorated this situation? This volume highlights the challenges and opportunities regarding the country's Energy Security.

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Asia Mukhtar, Ph.D. (2017), University of the Punjab, is Assistant Professor of International Relations at Kinnaird College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan. She has published numerous research papers, book chapters and newspaper articles. Her most recent publication is “Poetics and politics of post-partition cultural memories in Kamila Shamsie’s Kartography” (2022) in Contemporary South Asia, Taylor & Francis.
List of Abbreviations
List of illustrations

 1 The Concept of ‘Energy Security and the Field of International Relations

1 The Implications of the Concept of Energy Security for the South Asian Region and Pakistan
 1 The Implications of the ‘Securitization Theory’ for the Field of Energy Security
 2 Main Theories of International Relations of Energy Security
  2.1 Realism
  2.2 Neorealism
  2.3 Copenhagen School Approach
  2.4 Liberalism
 3 Neoliberalism and Energy Security Theory
  3.1 Institutionalism and Energy Security Theory
 4 The Inevitable Link between Security Theory and Concept of Energy Security
 5 Energy Insecurity Concept and International Relations
 6 Energy Security Dilemma of South Asia
  6.1 Increase in Demand
  6.2 Increase in Prices
  6.3 Increase in Foreign Dependency
 7 Pakistan’s Present Energy Security in Focus

2 The Historical Context of Pakistan’s Energy Insecurity (1947–1999)
 1 Phase I: Energy Insecurity of Pakistan (1947–1977)
 2 Major Developments in Main Energy Sectors (1947–1977)
 3 An Analysis of Energy Sector in Five Year Plans (1947–77)
 4 Phase II: Energy Insecurity Narrative of Pakistan (1977–99)
 5 Major Developments in Main Energy Sectors (1977–1999)

3 Pakistan’s Energy Security Scenario on the Onset of 21st Century
 1 Inherent and Policy Barriers to the Pakistan’s Energy Security
  1.1 Water Insecurity
  1.2 Thermal Reliability
  1.3 Failure in Nuclear Power Energy Generation
  1.4 Negligence of Renewable Energy Resources
  1.5 Lack of Long Term and Coherent Energy Planning

4 A Critique of Prevailing Policies and Practices in the Energy Sector of Pakistan
 1 Energy Crisis of 2008: Challenges and Implications
 2 The National Energy Policy (2013–2018)
  2.1 Efficiency
  2.2 Competition
  2.3 Sustainability
 3 Strategies to Meet the Goals of National Energy Policy (2013–2018)
  3.1 The Strategy of the Supply Side
  3.2 The Strategy of the Demand Side
  3.3 Strategy of Affordability
  3.4 The Strategy of Supply Chain
  3.5 The Strategy of Power Generation
  3.6 The Strategy of Transmission
  3.7 Strategy of Distribution
  3.8 The Strategy of Financial Efficiency
  3.9 The Strategy of Governance
  3.10 Strategy of Prioritization
 4 An Analysis of the Outcomes of the Energy Policy (2013–2018)
  4.1 Established Energy Projects during 2013–2018
  4.2 Oil Sector
  4.3 Gas Sector
  4.4 Coal Sector
  4.5 Electricity
  4.6 Renewable Energy Sources
  4.7 Nuclear Power Projects
 5 Comparative Analysis of the Energy Policies of Zardari and Nawaz Sharif Era
  5.1 Oil Sector
  5.2 Natural Gas Sector
  5.3 Coal Sector
  5.4 Electricity Generation Sector
  5.5 Nuclear Energy Sector
 6 Present Energy Mix of Pakistan
 7 Realities of Energy Mix and Present Power Generation Capacity of Pakistan
 8 Present Share of Energy Resources in Electricity Generation
 9 Electricity Consumption Patterns in Different Consumer Sectors
  9.1 Oil Sector (Petroleum Product)
  9.2 Natural Gas Sector
  9.3 Nuclear Energy Sector
  9.4 Coal Sector
  9.5 Shifting to Renewable/Clean Energy
 10 Pakistan’s Energy Forecast (2021–2030)

5 Pakistan in Context: A Comparative Analysis of Energy Security Profile of South Asian Countries
 1 Afghanistan
 2 India
 3 Maldives
 4 Bhutan
 5 Nepal
 6 Sri Lanka
 7 Bangladesh
 8 Pakistan
 9 Regional Energy Security Milieu of South Asian
  9.1 Renewable Energy: Issues and Prospects
 10 Prospects of Inter-State Energy Trade in South Asia
  10.1 The Volume of Trade
 11 Mapping the Prospects and Challenges for Energy Cooperation under SAARC
  11.1 Cross-Border Power Trade
  11.2 Inter-Regional and Intra-Regional Trade
  11.3 Challenges and Barriers
  11.4 Restricted Focus on Renewable Energy
  11.5 Lack of Energy Trade
  11.6 Inter-Regional Relations
  11.7 Inter-Regional Trade Regulation
  11.8 Operational and Capital Cost of Cross-Border Transmission Network
  11.9 India’s Approach to Bilateralism
  11.10 Realities and Future Plans
 12 Complexities and Possibilities for Pakistan in the Regional Energy Cooperation

6 Pakistan’s Energy Insecurity: The Way Forward
 1 Major Findings
 2 Suggestions

Appendixes: Appendix I: Interviews
Appendix: II Interview and Survey Questionnaires

The book will be especially useful for research scholars, university libraries, professionals and policymakers working in the field of Pakistani and South Asian energy security.
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