Egyptian Pentecostalism: When Cyclones of Divine Power Invaded the Ancient Land

A Historiographical Analysis of Holiness, Pentecostal, and Neo-Charismatic Movements in Egypt in the Twentieth Century and Its Current Developments


This book on Egyptian Pentecostalism is considered the first integrated monograph on the topic. It invites scholars and students of Religions, Renewal Studies, and Pentecostalism around the world to discover a new arena of research. Due to the sociocultural perspective of this study on Pentecostalism in Egypt, the book also invites sociologists and scholars who study sociocultural and religious context of the Middle East and North Africa to add new trajectories to their studies. No doubt that this study reveals what was concealed for decades regarding movements and revivals that broke out in Egyptian cities and villages! A must-read!

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Tharwat Maher Nagib Adly Nagib, Ph.D. (2019), Regent University, VA, is Academic Dean and Professor of Historical Theology and Wesleyan/Pentecostal Studies at Faith Wesleyan Theological Seminary in Cairo. He is also the founder of Heaven Upon Earth Ministry in Egypt.
In his Egyptian Pentecostalism, Tharwat Adly has written what surely will be the definitive work on Egyptian Pentecostalism, a subject that has been long overlooked. This book is thoroughly researched, documented and above all well-written. Thank you Dr. Tharwat for this very valuable book. - Vinson Synan, Oral Roberts University

The first study of its kind, Tharwat's in-depth examination of the Pentecostal movement in Egypt sets a high standard for the historiography of Egyptian Pentecostalism. Through a meticulous investigation of Arabic and English sources, Tharwat anchors the emergence of Pentecostalism in late 19th-century Wesleyan Holiness soil and shows how international networks of indigenous and missionary men and women facilitated its growth. This study will become the standard for all future research on Egyptian Pentecostalism. - Dale M. Coulter, Pentecostal Theological Seminary

Tharwat Maher Nagib’s historiographical and theological analysis of Pentecostalism in Egypt fills a notable gap in scholarly research on Pentecostalism in Egypt and the Arab world. Employing a five-paradigm narrative methodology, Tharwat opens new vistas of insight into the resonance of the Egyptian socio-cultural context with the essential dynamics of Pentecostalism, including supernaturalism, tension with modernization, honoring of women, house church model, and democratization of power. Casting a larger net, Tharwat claims that the contextual theologies of Pentecostal and charismatic movements in Egypt impacted other Christian communities in the Middle East. Serious consideration should be given to replicating the methodology of this study to research on Pentecostalism in other regions in the Arab world. - Eric Newberg, Oral Roberts University

Preface and Acknowledgements

List of Abbreviations

1Introduction Setting the Stage
1 Purpose of the Study

2 Previous Glimpses on the Topic

3 Methodology and Description of the Primary Sources

4 Historical Background of the “Waves” Theory
4.1 The First Wave: Classical Pentecostals

4.2 The Second Wave: Charismatic Renewal

4.3 The Third Wave: Neo-charismatics

4.4 The Fourth Wave: New Apostolic Reformation

4.5 Critiques of the Three-Wave Taxonomy

5 Anderson’s Alternative Taxonomy

6 The Study of Egyptian Pentecostalism and the Usage of the “Waves” Analogy

Part 1
Historical Narrative
Introduction to Part 1

2The Early Protestant Missions in Egypt during the Ottoman Rule (1517–1798) until the Coming of the American Presbyterian Mission to Egypt in the Nineteenth Century
1 Introduction

2 The Early Protestant Missionary Work in Egypt during the Ottoman Rule (1517–1798) until Muhammad Ali’s Rule (1805–1848)
2.1 A Socio-cultural Background

2.2 Peter Heyling (1633–1634)

2.3 The Moravian Mission in Egypt (1750–1782)

2.4 Church Missionary Society ( cms ) Mission in Egypt (1825–1862)

3 The Rise of Protestantism in Egypt
3.1 The Egyptian Socio-political Context during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

3.2 The Coptic Church in the Mid-nineteenth Century

3.3 The Coming of the American Presbyterian Mission to Egypt

3.4 The Establishment of the First Egyptian Organized Protestant Denomination in Egypt: the Egyptian Presbyterian Church

4 A Discussion of Various Narratives and Interpretations of the Western Missionary Efforts in Egypt during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century

5 A Case Study: a Brief Examination of the Case of the cms Mission according to the Previous Examined Narratives

3The Pre-Pentecostal Era in Egypt (1899–1906) and the Wesleyan Holiness/Pentecostal-Like Movements during the First Half of the Twentieth Century
1 Introduction

2 The Ecclesiastical and Social Landscape in Egypt during the Last Decade of the Nineteenth Century

3 The Emergence of the Canadian Holiness Movement Church ( hmc ): a Theological and Socio-Cultural Background

4 The Emergence of the Egyptian Holiness Movement Church ( ehmc ): Cyclones of the Divine Power Reaches Upper Egypt

4The Birth of Egyptian Pentecostalism The Classical Pentecostal Movements in Egypt from the Beginning of the Twentieth Century until the Final Composition of Egyptian Pentecostal Denominations by the Mid-1960s
1 Introduction

2 Three-Blessing Theology in Transition: from Pentecostal-Like Holiness Movements to Classical Pentecostalism

3 The Emergence of the Classical Pentecostal Wave in Egypt
3.1 The Formative Years (1907–1912): Who Was the First to Light the Pentecostal Flame in Egypt?

3.2 George S. Brelsford’s Mission in Egypt (1909–1912): Theological Characteristics and Missionary Strategies

4 Major Developments during the Middle Years (1913–1930s)
4.1 A Shift Towards Durham’s “Finished Work” Theology and the Establishment of the Egyptian Assemblies of God

4.2 H. E. Randall’s Pentecostal Ministry in Egypt: the Early Phase (1912–1914)

4.3 Dāir el-Jārnoūs’ Revival and the Early Phase of Boutros Labib’s Ministry (1913–1914)

4.4 The Rise of Native Pentecostal Ministers in Egypt: Amir Abdel Malik (1893–1989) and Salib Boulos (1897–1946) as Models

4.5 Early Egyptian Pentecostalism (1907–1920) between Proliferation and Marginalization

4.6 Rejection of the Oneness Theology in the Ancient Trinitarian Land: Randall’s Embrace of the Unipersonal Belief in 1915 and his Repentance in 1921

4.7 Years of Expansion and Stabilization of the  aog  Denomination (Al-Kānīsā Al-Rāsūlīyah) in Egypt (1920s–1930s)

5 The Establishment of the Pentecostal Church of God ( cog ) in the Early 1940s

6 Samuel Mishreky’s Ministry and the Establishment of the Central Pentecostal Church of God in Cairo

7 The Establishment of Luxor Independent Oneness Church in the Late 1950s

8 Various Narratives of the Emergence and Development of the Classical Wave of Egyptian Pentecostalism: a Brief Analysis

5The Neo-charismatic Movement in Egypt from Its Emergence in the 1980s until the Present Time
1 Introduction

2 The Second Wave of Pentecostalism: the Charismatic Movements in Egypt

3 The Third Wave of Pentecostalism: the Neo-charismatic Movements in Egypt
3.1 House-Church Movements

3.2 Independent Classical Spiritual Ministries

3.3 Ecumenical Ministries

3.4 Neo-charismatic Mega-conferences

3.5 Fivefold Ministries and  nar  Structures

4 The Third Wave of Egyptian Pentecostalism in the Light of the First Wave: Organizational and Ecumenical Aspects

Part 2
Theological Analysis
Introduction to Part 2

6The Undeveloped Theological Aspects of the Classical Wave of Egyptian Pentecostalism The Contextual Pentecostal Theology of Samuel Mishreky
1 Introduction

2 The Trinitarian Aspect of Mishreky’s Theology

3 The Christological Aspect of Mishreky’s Theology

4 The Wesleyan Aspect of Mishreky’s Theology

7Historical Developments of the Doctrine of Baptism of the Holy Spirit in Relation to Major Eschatological and Ecclesiastical Aspects of Egyptian Pentecostalism
1 Introduction

2 Baptism of the Holy Spirit in the Western Context: a Brief Historical and Theological Background

3 Baptism of the Holy Spirit in Egyptian Pentecostalism: Historical and Theological Developments

4 Baptism of the Holy Spirit in Relation to Major Ecclesiastical and Eschatological Aspects in Egyptian Pentecostalism

5 Baptism of the Holy Spirit in Egyptian Pentecostalism: Speaking in Tongues and Other Manifestations

6 Baptism of the Holy Spirit in Egyptian Pentecostalism: Debates with Other Christian Traditions

8Historical Developments of Healing Theologies in Egyptian Pentecostalism
1 Introduction

2 Healing Theologies in the West from Wesleyan Tradition to Classical Pentecostalism: a Theological Landscape

3 Developments of Healing Theologies and Practices in the First Wave of Egyptian Pentecostalism
3.1 Healing Theologies and Practices in Early Pentecostal Missions in Egypt

3.2 Healing Theologies and Practices in the Major Egyptian Pentecostal Denominations: the Egyptian  aog ,  cog , and  pcog 

4 Developments of Healing Theologies and Practices in the Neo-charismatic Wave of Egyptian Pentecostalism

Part 3
Case Study
Introduction to Part 3

9Women in Egyptian Pentecostalism
1 Introduction

2 Women’s Ministry in the Early Holiness/Pentecostal Traditions in the West: a Brief Historical Background

3 History of the Early Holiness/Pentecostal Women Missionaries in Egypt and the Egyptian Women’s Involvement in Ministry
3.1 Women’s Ministry during the Holiness/Pre-pentecostal Era in Egypt

3.2 Women’s Ministry during the Early Egyptian Classical Pentecostalism
3.2.1 Lucy M. Leatherman (c. 1870–1925)

3.2.2 Sarah A. Smith (c. 1844–1918)

3.2.3 Lillian H. Trasher (1887–1961)

3.2.4 Mabel Dean (c. 1884–1961)

4 Women in the Contemporary Egyptian Pentecostal/Neo-charismatic Context
4.1 An Examination of the Contemporary Egyptian Pentecostal/Neo-charismatic Teaching on the Role of Women in Ministry

4.2 Ordinary and Non-prominent Pentecostals/Charismatics’ Beliefs

10Conclusions and Additional Insights
1 Summation of Findings and Major Contributions

2 The Acceptance of Pentecostalism in Egypt in the Light of Egyptian Cultural Context and Social Ethos: Additional Insights

3 The Road Ahead: Possibilities for Further Studies and Contributions to Renewal Studies

Appendix 1: Figures

Appendix 2: A Translated Version of the Original Arabic Survey: the Role of Women in Ministry



It is expected that this book will attract scholars and students of Religions, Renewal Studies, and Pentecostalism around the world. Due to the sociocultural perspective of this study on Pentecostalism in Egypt, it is also expected that this book will attract sociologists and scholars who study sociocultural and religious context of the Middle East and North Africa. Due to the focus on Egyptian Pentecostal/ neo-Charismatic revivals in this book (the revivalist aspect of the book), it is also expected that it will attract readers who are interested in this sort of writings on historical and contemporary revivals around the world.
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