The Rise of Acuteness in Balto-Slavic


The development of the prosodic system from Indo-European to Balto-Slavic is dominated by two major innovations: the rise of mobility and the rise of acuteness. This book provides a new account of the latter. It stands out from previous works for being informed by recent advances in phonological typology and tonogenesis and, especially, for its comprehensiveness. All matters related to the rise of acuteness are treated in detail. As a result, the book includes new insights on several issues of Balto-Slavic historical phonology and morphology as well.

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Miguel Villanueva Svensson, Ph.D. (2003), Complutense University of Madrid, is Associate Professor at Vilnius University. He is the author of numerous articles on Baltic, Balto-Slavic and Indo-European linguistics.
List of Tables

1 Introduction
 1.1 Purpose of This Study
 1.2 Language Labels
 1.3 Prosodic Terminology. Notation of Reconstructed Forms
 1.4 Structure of the Work

2 Balto-Slavic Prosodics: Stress Position
 2.1 Introduction
 2.2 Lithuanian
 2.3 Latvian
 2.4 Old Prussian
 2.5 Slavic
 2.6 Balto-Slavic Stress: Mobile Nominal Paradigms
 2.7 Balto-Slavic Stress: Valences
 2.8 Stress Position in Balto-Slavic and PIE
 2.9 Rise of Mobility: the State of the Art
 2.10 PIE and Balto-Slavic Accentual Systems (General)
 2.11 Hirt’s Law
 2.12 Illič-Svityč’s Accentual Correlations Revisited
 2.13 PIE and Balto-Slavic Stress Position: Conclusions and Consequences for the Rise of Acuteness

3 Balto-Slavic Prosodics: the Nature of Balto-Slavic Acuteness
 3.1 Introduction
 3.2 Lithuanian
 3.3 Latvian
 3.4 Old Prussian
 3.5 Baltic: Interim Summary and Further Prospects: Indirect Evidence
 3.6 Baltic Circumflex Metatony (with Development *ii̯as > *īs, *ii̯ā > *ē)
 3.7 Baltic Word-Final *ī > *i
 3.8 Baltic Secondary Local Cases
 3.9 Balto-Slavic Local Adverbs
 3.10 Common Slavic Tones (Evidence)
 3.11 Slavic Evidence for Acuteness in Unstressed Syllables
 3.12 Mobility and Acuteness (Meillet’s Law)
 3.13 Balto-Slavic Acuteness: Summary
 3.14 Approaches to the Realization of Balto-Slavic Acuteness
 3.15 Comparative Arguments: PIE Background
 3.16 Comparative Arguments: Balto-Slavic Data
 3.17 The Areal Dimension
 3.18 Balto-Slavic Acuteness from a Typological Perspective
 3.19 The Realization of Balto-Slavic Acuteness: Summary

4 The Origin of Balto-Slavic Acuteness: the State of the Art
 4.1 Introduction
 4.2 (PostNeogrammarian Approach
 4.3 (PostNeogrammarian Approach: Word-Final Syllables
 4.4 (PostNeogrammarian Approach: Word-Internal Position
 4.5 Kortlandt’s ‘Glottalization’ Approach
 4.6 Jasanoff’s Approach
 4.7 The Rise of Acuteness so far: Summary and Criticism
 4.8 Conclusion and Further Prospects

5 The Indo-European Lengthened Grade in Balto-Slavic
 5.1 Introduction
 5.2 PIE Lengthened Grade: Main Types
 5.3 PIE Lengthened Grade: Origin and Antiquity
 5.4 PIE Lengthened Grade: Nature of the Evidence
 5.5 Kortlandt’s Theory of the Origin of the PIE Lengthened Grade
 5.6 Evidence for Balto-Slavic Non-Acute
 5.7 Evidence for Balto-Slavic Acute: Verbal Formations
 5.8 Evidence for Balto-Slavic Acute: Nominal Formations
 5.9 Word-Final Position: Consonant-Stem Nominative Singular
 5.10 Word-Final Position: Other Endings
 5.11 Conclusion
 5.12 Implications for the Rise of Acuteness and Further Prospects

6 Balto-Slavic Non-acute Monophthongs
 6.1 Introduction: the Problem
 6.2 Non-acute Monophthongs and Contractional Length
 6.3 Contractional Length: Nominal Endings
 6.4 Contractional Length: Verbal Formations
 6.5 Contractional Length: Other Formations
 6.6 Loanwords
 6.7 Monosyllabic Circumflexion
 6.8 Nikolaev’s Metatony: the Evidence
 6.9 Origin of Nikolaev’s Metatony
 6.10 Sources of Acute and Non-acute Monophthongs: Summary and Problems
 6.11 Winter’s Law
 6.12 The Rise of Acuteness in Monophthongs

7 Osthoff’s Law in Balto-Slavic
 7.1 Introduction
 7.2 Osthoff’s Law in Balto-Slavic: the State of the Art
 7.3 Nature of the Evidence
 7.4 East Baltic: Word-Internal Position
 7.5 East Baltic: Long Diphthongs in Absolute Word-Final Position
 7.6 East Baltic: o-stem Instrumental Plural
 7.7 East Baltic: Accusative Plural and the Chronology of Osthoff’s Law
 7.8 East Baltic: Secondary Local Cases
 7.9 Old Prussian
 7.10 Slavic: Long Diphthongs in Absolute Word-Final Position
 7.11 Slavic: Word-Final Syllables
 7.12 Slavic: Word-Initial *ort-
 7.13 Slavic: Word-Internal Position
 7.14 Conclusion

8 Acute and Length in Balto-Slavic Diphthongs
 8.1 Introduction. Typological Unlikeliness of *ERHT > *ĒRT
 8.2 Lack of Independent Evidence for *ĒRT. Other Approaches
 8.3 East Baltic Word-Final *-ei̯, *-ai̯ > *ẹ̄ vs. *-ēi̯, *-āi̯ > Lith. ei,
 8.4 Baltic ā-stem Locative Singular
 8.5 Baltic ā-Stem Nominative-Accusative Dual
 8.6 Baltic ē-stems. Infinitive *-tei̯
 8.7 Baltic o-Stem Nominative Plural
 8.8 Baltic Verbal Endings
 8.9 Lith. pusiau and the Locative Dual
 8.10 Slavic
 8.11 Word-Internal Position: i̯e/o-presents to ERH-roots
 8.12 Word-Internal Position: *-EHU- Sequences
 8.13 Conclusion: No Length Involved in *ERHT > *ERT
 8.14 The Rise of Acuteness in Diphthongs
 8.15 The Rise of Balto-Slavic Acuteness: Framing the Problem
 8.16 The Rise of Acuteness in Balto-Slavic

9 Concluding Remarks
 9.1 The Rise of Acuteness in Balto-Slavic: Summary and Pending Questions
 9.2 Contraction across Laryngeals and Balto-Slavic Tonogenesis
 9.3 The Development of the PIE Laryngeals in Northern Indo-European and Balto-Slavic Tonogenesis
 9.4 Topics for Future Study

Index of Forms
Researchers and specialists in Indo-European studies, Baltic and Slavic linguistics.
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