Determined by Christ: The Pauline Metaphor ‘Being in Christ’


Supplements to Novum Testamentum publishes monographs and collections of essays that make original contributions to the field of New Testament studies. This includes text-critical, philological and exegetical studies, and investigations which seek to situate early Christian texts (both canonical and non-canonical) and theology in the broader context of Jewish and Graeco-Roman history, culture, religion and literature.

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List of Figures

Part 1: Preliminaries

1 Observations and Resolutions
 1.1 The Evidence
 1.2 This Study

2 Mapping the Past: The History of Research
 2.1 Adolf Deissmann (1892 and Later Developments)
 2.2 Mystical Interpretations (1890s until 1930s)
 2.3 Ecclesiological Interpretations (1930s and 1940s)
 2.4 Differentiation and Generalisation (1930s until 1960s)
 2.5 Jewish Backgrounds on the Rise (1960s until 1990s)
 2.6 Current Views and Assessments
 2.7 Conclusion: A Map of the Past

3 Methodological Re-orientation
 3.1 Introduction to Metaphor Theory and Its Usefulness for Interpreting Biblical Texts
 3.2 “Being ‘in Christ’” as a Metaphor

4 The Preposition ἐν: “Maid-of-All Work” and Magic Word
 4.1 Deissmann’s Fundamental Accomplishments and the Way Forward
 4.2 Archaic Period
 4.3 Classical Period
 4.4 Hellenistic Period
 4.5 Imperial Period
 4.6 Conclusion and Congruency with Paul
 4.7 Ἐν Χριστῷ as Compared to Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν/ἐμοί

5 What’s in a Title? The Meaning of Χριστός and κύριος
 5.1 Greek, Roman, and Jewish Naming Practices in the Imperial Period
 5.2 Χριστός and κύριος in Paul’s Letters
 5.3 Consequences for ἐν Χριστῷ and ἐν κυρίῳ

6 The Argumentative Power of Experience: Baptism as a Ritual
 6.1 Classifying Baptism as an Initiation Ritual
 6.2 Paul’s Interpretation of the Baptismal Ritual
 6.3 Characteristics of the Ritual of Baptism
 6.4 Conclusion

Part 2: Exegesis

Introduction to Part 2

7 In Christ Jesus through Baptism (Gal 3:26, 28)
 7.1 The Validity of the Promise (3:15–18)
 7.2 The Purpose of the Law (3:19–25)
 7.3 Baptism as the Means of Coming to be ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ (3:26–29)
 7.4 Sons through God’s Actions by His Son (4:1–7)
 7.5 Conclusion

8 In Christ Jesus Because of God (1 Cor 1:30)
 8.1 Leading Up to the Letter Body (1:1–9)
 8.2 The Argument of 1 Cor 1:10–2:5

9 Living in Christ as a Result of Having Come under His Rulership Who Now Is Also in Them (Rom 6:11; 8:1–2)
 9.1 The Present State of the Believers: Rom 6 and 8 within the Overall Frame of the Letter
 9.2 The Believers Are Dead to Sin and Living for God in Christ Jesus (6:1–14)
 9.3 The Change in Ownership Constitutes a Change in Behaviour with the Result of Eternal Life through Christ Jesus (6:15–7:6)
 9.4 The Role of the Law and the Calamity of Sin (Rom 7:7–25)
 9.5 The Reciprocal In-ness of Christ and the Believers, and the Spirit and the Believers (8:1–17)
 9.6 Conclusion: Being and Living “in Christ Jesus” in Rom 6 and 8

10 Boundaries Crossed and the Pervasive Lordship of Christ (Rom 16:7, 11)
 10.1 Becoming ἐν Χριστῷ as Crossing a Barrier (16:7)
 10.2 Being ἐν κυρίῳ as Being a Christ-Believer with a Different Lord (16:11)

11 Determined by Christ and His Love (2 Cor 5:17)
 11.1 The Basis of Boasting (5:11–13)
 11.2 Determined by Christ and His Love (5:14–17)
 11.3 Reconciliation Past and Present (5:18–6:2)
 11.4 Conclusion

12 Dominated by Christ “My” Lord and Thus Ruling Everything a Loss, So That Eventually God Will Judge “Me” to Be in Christ (Phil 3:9)
 12.1 Warning against Evil-Doers (3:1b–4a)
 12.2 Paul’s Previously Blameless Life as a Pharisee (3:4b–6)
 12.3 The Gain That Knowing Christ Has Brought (3:7–11)
 12.4 Running towards the Goal of the Resurrection (3:12–16)
 12.5 Conclusion

Part 3: Perspectives: “Being ‘in Christ’” among Similar Phenomena

Introduction to Part 3

13 More ἐν Χριστῷ: The Power of Paul’s Coined, Catchy, and Sharp Phrasing
 13.1 People in Christ Bearing Further Characteristics
 13.2 People Performing Activities Similar to “Being ‘in Christ’”
 13.3 Abstract Nouns in Christ
 13.4 Goods Owned in Christ
 13.5 “In Christ” as a Description of Circumstance or Condition
 13.6 Observations and Conclusions

14 More Prepositional Phrases: σὺν Χριστῷ, διὰ Χριστοῦ, and Others
 14.1 Σὺν Χριστῷ
 14.2 Διὰ Χριστοῦ
 14.3 Other Prepositional Phrases with Χριστός
 14.4 Ἐν πνεύματι
 14.5 Comparison and Conclusion

15 More Paul: ἐν Χριστῷ in the Deutero-Pauline Letters
 15.1 General Observations
 15.2 Colossians: Being in Christ in Light of Cosmic Christology
 15.3 Ephesians: Being in Christ as Opposed to Being Separated from Christ
 15.4 Second Thessalonians: Sharing in the Glorification of the Name of the Lord Jesus as Those Who Are in Him
 15.5 First Timothy: Faith and Love as God’s Gifts Bestowed on Those in Christ Jesus
 15.6 Second Timothy: Living in and Gifts Found in Christ Jesus
 15.7 Comparison and Conclusion

Part 4: Determined by Christ: The Pauline Metaphor “Being ‘in Christ’”

16 Results
 16.1 The Key Issues, How They Have Been Dealt With, and a Fresh Approach
 16.2 Gal 3:26, 28
 16.3 1 Cor 1:30
 16.4 Rom 6:11; 8:1–2
 16.5 Rom 16:7, 11
 16.6 2 Cor 5:17
 16.7 Phil 3:9
 16.8 Overarching Themes and Observations
Appendix: Colon Analyses
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