Volume 435 - Recueil des cours

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Rethinking the United Nations: 75 and Beyond, by Nawaf SALAM, Judge at the International Court of Justice
What remains of the world that existed in 1945 when the United Nations was founded? Clearly not much! The world has changed, and new socio-political realities have emerged. Hence, the fundamental question that arises today is whether this post-second world war organisation can still meet the different and complex challenges of our time. It was this difficult question that Judge Nawaf Salam tried to answer in a lecture he gave at The Hague Academy of International Law during its 2023 summer session.
Drawing on his unique and long experience as a practitioner and insider in the three main organs of the United Nations (General Assembly, Security Council and International Court of Justice), Judge Salam identified the main changes in the contemporary international order and the challenges they pose for the United Nations. Notwithstanding its past shortcomings, owing to its universal membership, its general purpose, the legitimacy it brings, its neutrality and impartiality, and its norm-setting advantages, the United Nations remains at the centre of such efforts and is needed more than ever. both as a forum and a tool. However, in his opinion, it is only a reinvigorated - or better, a reformed - United Nations that could live up to the new challenges of our changing times.

Le rôle du droit international dans le contrôle des sentences arbitrales, par Dominique HASCHER, Juge international à la Cour suprême de Singapour
L’introduction du droit international dans le contrôle des sentences révèle la force d’attraction de ce droit quand la sentence lui est soumise. Cette attraction révèle qu’il n’est pas possible de faire abstraction de l’ordre juridique international qui a donné naissance à la sentence dont les objectifs et la cohérence sont mieux préservés qu’avec le droit national. Le droit international peut aussi s’inviter, même si la sentence ne lui est pas soumise. Un droit international plus conquérant ne doit cependant pas déborder le contrôle. Le recours aux règles d’interprétation de la Convention de Vienne sur le droit des traités et au principe de proportionnalité démontre que l’intervention du droit international joue un rôle modérateur. Les principes mobilisés empruntent à plusieurs ordres juridiques qui se trouvent en réseau dans l’ordre international. Ils sont un langage universel et des éléments de communication. Une jurisprudence ouverte à l’influence du droit international suppose d’entreprendre une motivation qui parle aux autres et la conscience de participer à la sécurisation de la justice arbitrale. Dans cette perspective, le contrôle ne servirait plus qu’à écarter les sentences qu’on ne peut accueillir. On aura ainsi évolué vers une reconnaissance d’emblée des sentences.

Legal Facets of the Practice of International Organizations, by Niels BLOKKER, Professor at Leiden University
The aim of this special course is to discuss a number of legal facets of the practice of international organizations. A first legal facet is ‘practice as a rule’. Here, the notion of ‘established practice’ will be analyzed. The second legal facet covered by this course is ‘practice as a power’, discussing the power generating capacity of the practice of international organizations. The third legal facet concerns practice of international organizations as an interpretative device. The fourth and fifth legal facet will analyze how the International Court of Justice and the International Law Commission have dealt with the practice of international organizations in their work.

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Nawaf Salam, born 15 December 1953, in Beirut.
Since February 2018, served as Judge at the International Court of Justice. Previously, he served as Ambassador of Lebanon to the United Nations in New York (July 2007-Dec 2017) and represented Lebanon in the Security Council in 2010 and 2011, for its two-year term as non-permanent member. He assumed the Presidency of said Council for the months of May 2010 and September 2011. He also taught Political Science and International Law at the American University of Beirut and served as Chair of the Political Studies and Public Administration Department (2005-2007). Judge Salam was also Attorney at Law and counseled and represented various international and domestic, public and private entities in Beirut, Lebanon (1984-1989 and 1992-2007) and in Boston, USA (1989-1992). He holds a Doctorat d’Etat, from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques (Sciences Po), Paris, an LLM (Master of Laws) from Harvard Law School and a Doctorat in History from the Sorbonne University, Paris.

Dominique Hascher, né le 22 mai 1956 à Neuilly sur Seine (France).
Etudes secondaires au Lycée Henri IV (Paris), études de droit aux Universités de Paris II et Harvard (boursier Fulbright).
Entré en 1978 dans les services judiciaires français (concours étudiant), détaché à la Cour internationale d’arbitrage de la Chambre de commerce internationale en qualité de General Counsel et secrétaire général-adjoint (1990-1998), conseiller à la Cour de cassation en 2012, aujourd’hui juge international à la Cour suprême de Singapour.
Président ou membre de comités ad hoc constitués au titre de la Convention de Washington du 18 mars 1965 (CIRDI).
Président d’un tribunal arbitral international à Bruxelles (nommé par les coarbitres, juge à la Cour internationale de Justice et professeur de droit). Autorité de nomination nommé par la Cour permanente d’arbitrage dans l’affaire Pey Casado c. Chili.
Professeur associé, Université de Paris I (2001-2015) ; professeur invité, University College London (2005) University of Texas School of Law, Austin (2007).
Président de la Société de législation comparée (2015-2019), membre de l’American Law Institute, du Governing Board (Advisory Member) de l’International Council Commercial Arbitration (ICCA), de l’International Arbitration Institute, des comités français de l’arbitrage et de droit international privé ; secrétaire general de la branche française de l’International Law Association (1998-2006) ; member du comité scientifique de la Revue de l’arbitrage, conseiller à la rédaction de la Revue camerounaise de l’arbitrage.
Chevalier dans l’Ordre National de la Légion d’honneur (2005) l’Ordre National du Mérite (1998), Hon. Bencher de Gray’s Inn, Londres (2004).

Niels Blokker, born in Bussum, the Netherlands, on 18 February 1958.
Educated at Leiden University, where he obtained his doctorate (1989).
Senior legal counsel at the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2000-2007). Deputy Legal Adviser at the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2007-2013). In this capacity, he has given legal advice on a wide variety of international law questions, particularly relating to the ius ad bellum, privileges and immunities, and the law of international organizations. He represented the Netherlands in the negotiations on the crime of aggression (2000-2010).
Professor of International Institutional Law (“Schermers Chair”) at the Law Faculty of Leiden University (Netherlands), part-time since 2003, full-time since 2013. In this capacity, he is co-founder of the journal International Organizations Law Review, of which he has been a co-Editor-in-Chief (together with R. Wessel) from the beginning in 2004. He has taught as a guest professor in universities in many countries and has frequently given presentations at international conferences. On an ad hoc basis, he has advised international organizations.
Rethinking the United Nations: 75 and Beyond, by Nawaf SALAM, Judge at the International Court of Justice
Rethinking the United Nations: 75 and Beyond

Le rôle du droit international dans le contrôle des sentences arbitrales, par Dominique HASCHER, Juge international à la Cour suprême de Singapour
Introduction
Chapitre 1. L’attraction du droit international
A. Le droit international régit la sentence
B. La force du droit international
Chapitre 2. Le droit international, élément modérateur du contrôle
A. S’introduire dans le fond?
B. Les limites
Chapitre 3. Un contrôle nourri de principes universellement reconnus, élevés au rang de principes de droit international, à titre de langage commun Conclusion

Legal Facets of the Practice of International Organizations, by Niels BLOKKER, Professor at Leiden University
Introduction
Chapter 1. Practice as a rule: “established practice” as part of the law of international organizations
Chapter 2. Practice as a power: the power-generating capacity of the practice of international organizations
Chapter 3. Practice in interpretation: practice of international organizations as an interpretative device
Chapter 4. The international court of justice and practice of international organizations
Chapter 5. The international law commission and practice of international organizations
Concluding observations
Bibliography
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