Calculating Ethics in the Fourteenth Century


Calculating Ethics in the Fourteenth Century addresses a moment in the history of ethics, when discoveries in natural philosophy blurred the boundary between the possible and the impossible, and made the impossible a preferred territory in discussions on practical reason. The volume studies the onset and expansion of a new movement in constructing ethics, as the methods, arguments, and cases adopted from logic and natural philosophy came to be extensively applied at Oxford and swiftly disseminated among other Oxonians eventually making their way outside Oxford. It shows how the Oxford Calculators triggered a unique and durable transformation in ethics.
Contributors are Pascale Bermon, Valeria Buffon, Michael W. Dunne, Marek Gensler, Simon Kemp, Edit A. Lukács, Monika Michałowska, and Andrea Nannini.

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Edit Anna Lukács, Ph.D. (2008), is Academy Scientist at the Institute for Medieval Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Her most recent book is titled Immovable Truth. Divine Knowledge and the Bible at the University of Vienna (1384-1419) (Brill, 2024).
Monika Michałowska, Ph.D. (2007), is Professor at the Medical University of Łódź. Her research focuses on late medieval ethics and theology. She has critically edited Richard Kilvington’s Quaestiones super libros Ethicorum and Quaestiones super libros Sententiarum (Brill, 2016, 2021, 2023).
List of Figures
Notes on Contributors

1 Calculatory Ethics: Methods, Arguments, and Cases. Introduction
Monika Michałowska and Edit A. Lukács

2 Walter Burley on Moral Change
Marek Gensler

3 Richard FitzRalph on Contradictory Appetites (Appetitus Contrarii): An Unfinished Debate
Michael W. Dunne

4 At the Intersections of Physics and Ethics: Richard Kilvington on Ethical Change
Monika Michałowska

5 How Many Actions Does One Need to Generate a Moral Virtue? From the First Lecturae on the Nicomachean Ethics to John Buridan’s Quaestiones
Valeria Buffon

6 Martyrs Who Do Not Die: Robert Halifax on Supererogation
Edit A. Lukács

7 Does Robert Holcot’s Theory of Faith Transmission Prefigure Solomon Asch’s Conformity Experiment?
Pascale Bermon

8 Ethical Implications of a Metaphysical Structure: Peter Ceffons and John Ripa
Andrea Nannini

9 The Measurement of Psychological Quality in the Fourteenth Century and Today
Simon Kemp

Index of Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance Names
Index of Things
All those interested in ethics, the history of ideas, philosophy, theology, and logic in the Middle Ages, as well as readers concerned with commentaries on Aristotleʼs Nicomachean Ethics and on Peter Lombardʼs Sentences.
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