This volume deals with the transformative force of Observant reforms during the long fifteenth century, and with the massive literary output by Observant religious, a token of a profound pastoral professionalization that provided religious and lay people alike with encompassing models of religious perfection, as well as with new tools to shape their religious identity. The essays in this work contend that these models and tools had an ongoing effect far into the sixteenth century (on all sides of the emerging confessional divide). At the same time, the controversies surrounding Observant reforms resulted in new sensibilities with regard to religious practices and religious nomenclature, which would fuel many of the early sixteenth-century controversies.
Contributors are Michele Camaioni, Anna Campbell, Fabrizio Conti, Anna Dlabačová, Sylvie Duval, Koen Goudriaan, Emily Michelson, Alison More, Bert Roest, Anne Thayer, Johanneke Uphoff, Alessandro Vanoli, Ludovic Viallet, and Martina Wehrli-Johns.
A Companion to Priesthood and Holy Orders in the Middle Ages, a select group of scholars explain the rise and function of priests and deacons in the Middle Ages. Though priests were sometimes viewed through the lens of function, the medieval priesthood was also defined ontologically–those marked by God who performed the sacraments and confected the Eucharist.
While their role grew in importance, medieval priests continued to fulfil the role of preacher, confessor and provider of pastoral care. As the concept of ordination changed theologically the practices and status of bishops, priests and deacons continued to be refined, with many of these medieval discussions continuing to the present day.
What happens when the idea of religious progress propels the shaping of modernity? In
The Ahmadiyya Quest for Religious Progress. Missionizing Europe 1900 – 1965 Gerdien Jonker offers an account of the mission the Ahmadiyya reform movement undertook in interwar Europe. Nowadays persecuted in the Muslim world, Ahmadis appear here as the vanguard of a modern, rational Islam that met with a considerable interest.
Ahmadiyya mission on the European continent attracted European ‘moderns’, among them Jews and Christians, theosophists and agnostics, artists and academics, liberals and Nazis. Each in their own manner, all these people strove towards modernity, and were convinced that Islam helped realizing it. Based on a wide array of sources, this book unravels the multiple layers of entanglement that arose once the missionaries and their quarry met.
Smilen Markov’s monograph on the metaphysical synthesis of John Damascene depicts a paradox ontological structure: the single man, whose ontological position is conditioned by non-being, participates in the life of the Origin of being. The term ‘historical interconnections’ denotes the basic elements of Damascene’s reception strategy through which he approaches the Holy Scripture and the tradition of the fathers. The structural transformation to which different epochs and cultural circles put Damascene’s concepts reveals regularity in understanding the intellectual scope of the Palestinian monk. The reception of his thought could serve as an indicator for the stable mental structures, ‘framing’ the epoch turning-points in European culture for at least six centuries.
Essays in Renaissance Thought and Letters is a volume dedicated to John Monfasani, renowned scholar of Latin and Greek rhetoric and philosophy. These essays range from Antiquity to the Enlightenment, in genre from learned notes to editiones principes, and in discipline from intellectual to socio-economic history. An introduction to Monfasani’s life and works, and a list of his opera open the volume.
Contributors include Michael J.B. Allen, Sándor Bene, Concetta Bianca, Robert Black, Christopher Celenza, Brian Copenhaver, John Demetracopoulos, James Hankins, Martin Hinterberger, Thomas Izbicki, David Jacoby, Peter Mack, Lodi Nauta, David Rundle, David Rutherford, Chris Schabel, April Shelford, and Thomas M. Ward.
Companion to the Theology of John Mair explores the major theological themes present in Mair's commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Mair is often noted for his importance as a leading sixteenth-century Parisian intellectual. The essays in this volume explore his influence as a teacher and thinker in this critical place and time. The volume gives special consideration to his attitude toward humanism and his deep familiarity with the scholastic past.
The book is divided into four sections. It explores Mair's attitude toward faith and theology, his theological metaphysics, his ethics and role in the development of moral casuistry, and his views on justification and sacramentology. The volume likewise includes a substantial appendix (including an edition of the table of questions for all four books of Mair's commentary) aimed to assists scholars in further exploration of Mair's Theology.
A Companion to Alain Chartier: Father of French Eloquence brings together fourteen contributions that offer a range of perspectives and insights into the works of this exceptional late medieval author. As heir to the past and herald of the future, Chartier reinvented the traditional, whether in Latin or French, verse or prose. Chartier’s open-ended, dialogic works and his own politically-engaged writing inspired his successors to think and write in new ways about ethics, the individual’s role in society, relationships between men and women, and the responsibility of a poet to his/her audience. As these essays show, Chartier’s renovation of poetic form and content had considerable influence over successive generations of writers in France and across Europe.
Contributors are: Adrian Armstrong, Florence Bouchet, Emma Cayley, Daisy Delogu, Ashby Kinch, James C. Laidlaw, Marta Marfany, Deborah McGrady, Joan E. McRae, Jean-Claude Mühlethaler, Liv Robinson, Camille Serchuk, Andrea Tarnowski, Craig Taylor, and Hanno Wijsman.
The French Franciscan Peter Auriol (c. 1280-1322) is regarded as one of the most innovative thinkers of 14th century philosophy and theology. In
Theologie und Wissenschaft bei Petrus Aureoli, Florian Wöller offers an account of Auriol’s theory of science and his view on theology as an academic discipline as they emerge from his commentaries on the
Sentences. Auriol conceived theology not as a science in any strict sense, but he nonetheless believed that scientific disciplines and theology share their most fundamental features.
Florian Wöller presents Auriol in the context of medieval debates on science and theology. His book will add to our knowledge of later-medieval conceptions of the nature of theology and the nature of science more generally.
Religious Education in Thirteenth-Century England, Andrew Reeves examines how laypeople in a largely illiterate and oral culture learned the basic doctrines of the Christian religion. Although lay religious life is often assumed to have been a tissue of ignorance and superstition, this study shows basic religious training to have been broadly available to laity and clergy alike.
Reeves examines the nature, availability and circulation of sermon manuscripts as well as guidebooks to Christian teachings written for both clergy and literate laypeople. He shows that under the direction of a vigorous and reforming episcopate and aided by the preaching of the friars, clergy had a readily available toolkit to instruct their lay flocks.
Over the course of thirty years, Hermann Samuel Reimarus (1694-1768) secretly drafted what would become the most thorough attack on revelation to date, ushering the quest for the historical Jesus and foreshadowing the religious criticism of the new atheism of the twentieth century. Peeling away the layers of Reimarus’s radical work by looking at hitherto unpublished manuscript evidence, Ulrich Groetsch shows that the Radical Enlightenment was more than just an international philosophical movement. By demonstrating the importance philology, antiquarianism, and Semitic languages played in Reimarus’s upbringing, scholarship, and teaching, this new study provides a vivid portrayal of an Enlightenment radical at the cusp of the secular age, whose debt to earlier traditions of scholarship remains undisputed.