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La perte de l'Esprit Saint et son recouvrement dans l'Église ancienne

La réconciliation des hérétiques et des pénitents en Occident, du IIIe siècle jusqu’à Grégoire le Grand

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Laurence Decousu

Quand Dieu fait don de l’Esprit aux croyants, comment l’Esprit est-il conféré ? L’Esprit peut-il être perdu ? Laurence Decousu s’attache à répondre à ces questions en étudiant comment l’Église ancienne réconciliait les pénitents et ceux qui s’étaient séparés d’elle. Depuis le Moyen-Âge, la théologie catholique pense que l’Esprit est donné à travers des rites célébrés une fois pour toutes : baptême, confirmation, ordre. Or l’Église des Pères n’a pas vu ces rites comme transmettant l’Esprit et ses effets. Pour eux, recevoir l’Esprit dépendait d’une initiative divine, à la fois directe, libre et souveraine. Cette étude représente une contribution importante pour renouveler la pneumatologie, la pastorale, et les relations œcuméniques.

When God gives the Spirit to believers, how is the Spirit conferred ? Can the Spirit be lost ? Laurence Decousu answers these questions by studying the reconciliation of penitents and those who have separated themselves from the Church. Ever since the Middle Ages, theology has held that the Spirit is given through rites celebrated once for all : Baptism, Confirmation, Order. The Church Fathers did not see these rites as transmitting the Spirit and the effects of the Spirit. For them, reception of the Spirit depended on a divine initiative that was direct, free and sovereign. This study is an important contribution to the renewal of pneumatology, pastoral practice and ecumenical relations.

Isis en Occident

Actes du IIème Colloque international sur les études isiaques, Lyon III 16-17 mai 2002

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Edited by Laurent Bricault

In this volume, 16 contributions by specialists of political and religious history of Antiquity give a precious general overview of the diffusion of Egyptian cults in the West. The first part gives a very precise survey of the diffusion of Egyptian cults in the western Roman world, while the second part of the book is devoted to special fields usually considered as subsidiary (numismatics, lychnology, gemmology), but in fact essential for a better understanding of the success of the Isiac cults in the Graeco-Roman world between 330 BC and 400 AD.

L'énigme du bonheur

Étude sur le sujet du bien dans le livre de Qohélet

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Bertrand Pinçon

This study deals with the question of happiness in the book of Qoheleth, starting with the contemporary debate among modern writers concerning the status of various encouraging statements that emerge out of a general context in which “all is vanity”. The first part of this study describes the current position of research, examining the debated questions. The second part proposes an exegetical and contextual inquiry of the words for happiness, drawn up by these authors. The third part suggests a way of resolving the enigma of happiness, based upon an additional formula of happiness, located at the beginning of the second half of the book. Gradually, a conviction takes shape: happiness does not have the same status in the two parts of the book. If, at first, happiness is presented as the only alternative given by God to help man to hold on when faced with the fleetingness of things in life, it later becomes an art of living, apt to be taught to future generations.

Le Temps et les Temps

dans les littératures juives et chrétiennes au tournant de notre ère

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Christian Grappe and Jean-Claude Ingelaere

This volume deals with calendar and liturgical times on the one hand. It discusses questions related to the establishment of the calendar and the observance of traditional and new feasts in Palestine and in the diaspora. On the other hand this book deals with the predetermined organization of the times. It considers the periodization of times and the idea of a revelation being carried out from one period to another; the irruption of the fixed Time and the concomitant representation of a recovery of the times; and the expectation of the last times. In particular, the texts from Qumran, the New Testament, and hellenistic Jewish literature are investigated, but older and more recent texts are taken into account as well.

Femme, Gnose et Manichéisme

De l’espace mythique au territoire du réel

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Madeleine Scopello

The present volume offers twelve studies dealing with feminine figures in Gnosticism and Manichaeism.
In Part One (“Images et symboles”), the Author unveils the hidden meaning of some feminine figures having played a role on the mythical scene of those trends. Some of these figures, borrowed from other traditions, have been deeply reworked by Gnostics or Manichees assuming thereby a new significance. An intermezzo (“Passages”) investigates the presence of women names in titles preserved in the Nag Hammadi Library and the relationship between a female protagonist and a specific literary genre. Part Two (“Histoire et réalité”) reconstructs the portraits of some women, especially Manichaean, to whom the historical inquiry gives life again, thanks to a fresh reading of first hand sources, as well of heresiological or archeological testimonies.
Some of these studies have been previously published and have now been significantly updated and expanded. Some others are lectures on Feminine in Gnosticism and Manichaeism given by the Author in Sorbonne, Paris, since 1994.

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Les douze études que rassemble ce volume abordent sous différentes facettes le personnage de la femme dans la gnose et dans le manichéisme. Dans la première partie (« Images et symboles »), l’Auteur dévoile la signification cachée de quelques figures féminines qui ont joué un rôle sur la scène du mythe. Si les auteurs gnostiques et manichéens ont emprunté certaines d’entre elles à d’autres traditions, ils ont toutefois remodelé ces figures en profondeur en les chargeant d’une nouvelle signification. La deuxième partie (« Passages ») s’interroge sur la présence de noms féminins dans les titres conservés de la bibliothèque de Nag Hammadi et sur la relation éventuelle entre une protagoniste féminine et le choix d’un genre littéraire. La troisième partie (« Histoire et réalité ») reconstruit les portraits de quelques femmes, surtout manichéennes, dont les traits effacés se précisent grâce à une lecture originale de la documentation directe et des sources hérésiologiques, grâce aussi à l’apport de l’archéologie.
Une partie de ces études, publiée auparavant, paraît ici sous une forme largement amplifiée. D’autres reprennent les thèmes de conférences sur la femme dans le manichéisme, données par l’Auteur à la Sorbonne entre 1997 et 2002.

Typologie spatio-temporelle de l'Ecclesia byzantine

La Mystagogie de Maxime le Confesseur dans la culture philosophique de l'Antiquité tardive

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Pascal Mueller-Jourdan

This study addresses the philosophical context of the Mystagogy of Maximus the Confessor. It examines how the Byzantine monk integrates Neoplatonist topics when exposing one of the most important feature of his religious conception of the physical world or cosmology.
The volume contains three chapters. The first one compares the purpose of the Mystagogy and the program of the philosophical training in late Antiquity. The second consists of two parts : (1) study of the use of the Aristotelian categories of 'when' and 'where' in the 'Ambiguum 10' of Maximus in order to analyse the status of ecclesiastical architecture and the nature of the liturgical 'synaxis' of the church (chapter 3); (2) study of the development of the categories of space and time in the works of the Neoplatonist Greek commentators of Plato and Aristotle such as Jamblichus, Proclus, Simplicius and Damascius. The third chapter offers the first extended examination of the metaphysical status of the 'ecclesia' and its dynamic activity compared to the metaphysical status of space and time required for the explanation of the Neoplatonist physical world system. Henceforth, the 'ecclesia' of the Mystagogy can be considered as the type of the providential action of God.
This book provides many important new perspectives for reading the works of Maximus the Confessor, especially the Mystagogy, not only for theologians, but also for scholars interested in late Antique and Byzantine philosophy.

Cette étude, consacrée au contexte philosophique de la Mystagogie de Maxime le Confesseur, examine comment le moine byzantin intègre certains concepts tirés du Néoplatonisme quand il expose les plus importantes lignes de sa conception religieuse du monde physique. Ce volume contient trois chapitres. Le premier compare l'objectif de la Mystagogie et le programme philosophique des écoles de l'Antiquité tardive.
Le second comporte deux parties : (1) une étude de l'emploi des catégories 'quand' et 'où' dans l' Ambiguum 10' de Maxime avec pour objectif l'analyse du statut de l'architecture ecclésiale et l'analyse de la nature de la synaxe liturgique (chapitre 3); (2) une étude du développement des catégories de lieu et de temps dans les Oeuvres des Commentateurs néoplatoniciens de Platon et d'Aristote, tels Jamblique, Proclus, Simplicius et Damascius. Le troisième chapitre offre la première étude approfondie du statut métaphysique et dynamique de l' ecclesia compare au statut métaphysique du lieu et du temps requis par l'explication néoplatonicienne du monde physique.
L' ecclesia de la Mystagogie sera ainsi considerée comme le type de l'action providentielle de Dieu dans le monde créé. Ce livre fournit une nouvelle perspective de lecture des Oeuvres de Maxime le Confesseur et devrait intéresser tant les théologiens que les scientifiques consacrant leurs travaux à l'Antiquité tardive et à la philosophie byzantine.

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Christophe Batsch

This work deals with the Jewish warfare in the Hellenistic and Roman Antiquity from the point of view of the religious rites which, for the Ancients, were a necessary part of all social activity. The author rejects the traditional concept of "Holy War" and prefers to emphasise the diversity of representations of war in the Judaism of the Second Temple. The book deals with questions linked to the status of warriors and priests who were involved in war with regard to purity laws. It analyses the rituals specific to military operations. It deals with the Sabbath, with the war oracle of the ourim and toummim as well as the different types of sacrifices associated with war. The book presents a comprehensive but diverse and contrasted portrait of the Jewish practises and representations of war in Ancient times.

La décrétale Ad Gallos Episcopos: son texte et son auteur

Texte critique, traduction française et commentaire

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Yves-Marie Duval

In 1904, Ed.-Ch. Babut issued a new edition of the important Decretale Ad Gallos episcopos with the help of a second manuscript of the canonical “collection of St. Maur”. He attributed it to Pope Damasus (366-384), and not to Sirice (384-398). Nevertheless, he did ignore the existence of the ancestor of the two previous manuscripts and of an other collection, materialized today by two fragmented manuscripts. This new edition of the Decretale is updated with the help of all the existing traditions and brings significant improvements.
The attribution to Damasus, discussed throughout the 20th century is here confirmed through another method than Babut's. The survey of the content, the texts of the holy scripture used, and argumentation make possible the identification of the influence of Jerome who was the secretary of Damasus in 382-384. He was the only man using specific bible texts or specific expressions present in this Decretale.
In spite of his wish to base all his decisions upon the Scripture and upon the Fathers' tradition (Nicée-Sardique), we discover in this decretale, focused essentially on the life of the blessed virgins and on the hiring process and life of the church, the strong assessment of the power of the “Sedes apostolica” and also of the necessity of a discipline policy, designed by the Church of Rome.

«Car c'est l'amour qui me plaît, non le sacrifice...»

Recherches sur Osée 6:6 et son interprétation juive et chrétienne

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Edited by Eberhard Bons

This book contributes to the study of Hosea 6:6 ("For what I desire is love and not sacrifice, and I prefer knowledge of God to burnt offerings") and its reception in ancient Jewish and Christian writings. Some of the articles contained in this book address the verse itself and the use made of it in the Sibylline Oracles, Gospel of Matthew, rabbinic writings, and patristic literature. Other articles deal with the notion of sacrifice in Philo and with the notion of mercy in the Septuagint, the Gospel of Luke, and Greek literature.

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Katell Berthelot

This book analyzes how humanism was conceived of in different philosophical schools during the Hellenistic and early Roman period, and how these ideas were debated in ancient Jewish thought. The term humanism refers to the idea that every person has duties towards his/her fellow human beings, for the sole reason that they all share a common nature or are bound by a form of kinship.
The book also tries to determine to which extent Gen 1:26-27 (creation of human beings in God's image) and Lev 19:18 (the commandment to love one's neighbour, who is like oneself) could be interpreted in a humanistic way by ancient Jewish writers.