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Images of the Divine

The Theology of Icons at the Seventh Ecumenical Council


Ambrosios Giakalis

This book examines the theology of icons in the eighth century, the most critical period in the evolution of the Eastern Church's teaching on images. The principal source is provided by the acta of the Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787.
The political circumstances which led to the outbreak of the controversy over icons are discussed in detail but the main emphasis is on the theological arguments and presuppositions of the participants in the council. Major themes include the nature of tradition, the relationship between image and reality and the place of christology.
Ultimately the argument over icons was about the accessibility of the divine. Icons were held by the iconophiles to communicate a deifying grace which raised the believer to participation in the life of God.


Michael B. Hornum

Although Nemesis was already revered in Archaic Greece, the main evidence for worship comes from the Roman Principate. During this period two important facets of the cult were the association of the goddess with the state, and her presence in agonistic contexts. Nemesis, the Roman State and the Games explores these aspects, discerning a possible connection between them.
The author begins by discussing the origin and background of the goddess. He then clarifies the ways in which the goddess was enlisted into the service of the Roman emperor and state. Finally, he explains the presence of the goddess almost exclusively at the Roman Munus and Venatio as derived from the function of such games to express the proper order of society.
Nemesis represents a significant re-evaluation of the place of Nemesis in the Roman World. The book also provides an invaluable corpus of epigraphic, literary, and iconographic evidence for the goddess.

Twice Neokoros

Ephesus, Asia and the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family

Steven J. Friesen

Twice Neokoros is a case study of the Cult of the Sebastoi that was established in the city of Ephesus by the province of Asia during the late first century C.E. Epigraphic and numismatic data indicate that the Cult of the Sebastoi was dedicated in 89/90 to the Flavian imperial family. The architecture, sculpture, municipal titles, and urban setting of the cult all reflect Asian religious traditions. The image of Ephesus was significantly altered by the use of these traditions in the institutions related to the Cult of the Sebastoi. Within the context of the history of provincial cults in the Roman Empire, the Cult of the Sebastoi became a turning point in the rhetoric of social order. Thus, the Cult of the Sebastoi served as a prototypical manifestation of socio-religious developments during the late first and early second century in the Eastern Mediterranean.

The City of the Moon God

Religious Traditions of Harran


Tamara M. Green

This study treats the religious and intellectual history of the city of Harran (Eastern Turkey) from biblical times down to the establishment of Islam. The author starts from the well-known reference in the Qur'an and the early Islamic histories to the people of Harran as Sabians, one of the 'peoples of the book.'
The author unravels strands of religious tradition in Harran that run from the old Semitic planetary cults through Hellenistic hermeticism, gnosticism, and Neo-Pythagoreanism and Christian cults to esoteric Islamic sects such as the Sufis and Shiites.


J. Leclant

This fourth volume of IBIS completes the first series of this analytical bibliography of publications concerning the spread of cults of Isis published between 1940 and 1969 (nos. 1167 to 1752).
Authors have sometimes been driven to look beyond the limits of the Greco-Roman world and the field of the Isiac cults stricto sensu. Such is the case with Egyptian or Egyptisizing documents carried by Greek or Phonecian-Punic commerce towards the distant western coasts of the Mediterranean basin. The Egyptophile tradition in our European culture seems to have taken its place here too.
Each of the literature reviews given here is accompanied by very precise bibliographical references for the publications concerned, as well as a detailed analysis of the contents of the publication and its contribution to the general themes of research.
The authors have aimed to provide the most complete and practical research tool possible. Furthermore, a number of cross-references and additional bibliographical information have been provided in the notes. A detailed index of more than 150 pages allows not only a rapid consultation of the work, but also fairly direct access to complete bibliographies on the cults of Isis, the Aegyptiaca and Egyptian influences in the Greco-Roman world.
Avec ce 4e volume d' IBIS se termine la première série de cette bibliographie analytique des publications relatives à la diffusion des cultes isiaques parues entre 1940 et 1969 (nos. 1167 à 1752).
Les auteurs ont été parfois entrâinés à dépasser les limites du monde gréco-romain et le domaine des cultes isiaques stricto sensu. Tel est le cas pour les documents égyptiens ou égyptisants véhiculés par le commerce grec ou phénico-punique jusque vers les côtes lointaines de l'Ouest du bassin méditerranéen. La tradition de l'égyptophilie dans notre culture européenne a semblé également devoir prendre ici sa place.
Pour chacune des 585 notices sont données les références bibliographiques très précises de la publication concernée, ainsi qu'une analyse détaillée du contenu de la publication et de son apport à nos thèmes de recherches.
L'objectif des auteurs a été de fournir un instrument de travail le plus complet et le plus pratique possible. Aussi, de nombreux renvois et compléments bibliographiques ont-ils été fournis pour la plupart des notices. Un index minutieux de plus de 150 pages permet non seulement une consultation rapide de l'ouvrage, mais encore la constitution en quelque sorte immédiate de bibliographies complètes sur les cultes isiaques, les Aegyptiaca et les influences égyptiennes dans le monde gréco-romain.
Destiné aux spécialistes des cultes orientaux, l' IBIS sera utile également à tous ceux qui travaillent sur l'Antiquité classique.

Edited by Louis Feldman and Hata

Anthologies - Livre I

Etablissement, traduction et commentaire par J.-F. Bara


Vettius Valens d'Antioche