The Human Right to Water in Latin America, Anna Berti Suman investigates the development of the right to water and of water law in the Latin American context. By examining the significance of Latin American constitutional evolution, doctrine, and jurisprudence, the author illustrates the Latin American contribution in stimulating the social, political, and economic debate on the right to water, regionally and worldwide.
Through an overview on the right to water in Latin American constitutions and of the main Latin American water management systems, Berti Suman argues that an analysis of the right to water has to take account of its application in specific contexts. The intrinsic connection between the right to water and the role of the private sector is examined through topical insights into the highly privatized Chilean water services. In the conclusion, the relevance of the lessons learnt from the Latin American experience for the global debate on the right to water is convincingly proved.
The rich field of inter-state water law in the United States illustrates both successes and failures in transboundary water management and allocation. In
Inter-state Water Law in the United States of America: What Lessons for International Water Law?, this domestic field of transboundary water law is compared and contrasted with international transboundary water law. This analysis is accompanied by a discussion and evaluation of the different cases of shared watercourses that applied these approaches, and a comparison of each of them to similar approaches in international water law. The analysis draws lessons for international water law from inter-states water law - highlighting the successful inter-states approaches that can be adopted by international water law, as well as the approaches that failed, and which should be avoided.
The last decades have witnessed a growing emphasis on the relationship between environmental law and criminal law. Legislation aimed at tackling environmental crime has been adopted at national, EU, and international level and has been gradually evolving over time. These developments notwithstanding, the current legal framework faces a number of challenges in tackling the largely inter-related phenomena of transnational, organised and economic environmental crime. This study by Valsamis Mitsilegas and Fabio Giuffrida addresses these challenges by focusing on the role of the European Union- and more specifically its criminal justice agencies (Europol and Eurojust)- in tackling transnational environmental crime. The study analyses the role of Eurojust and Europol in supporting and coordinating the competent national authorities dealing with investigations and/or prosecutions on transnational environmental crime, and it shows that, for the time being, the full potential of these agencies is not adequately exploited with regard to fighting this phenomenon effectively
Transboundary Offshore Aquifers: A Search for a Governance Regime, Renee Martin-Nagle explains the geologic origins of offshore freshwater aquifers and proposes a governance regime for offshore aquifers that are shared by two or more nations. While the existence of freshwater offshore aquifers under continental shelves has been known for decades, none discovered thus far straddle an international border. In the event that an offshore aquifer shared by two or more nations is identified and targeted for development, selection of a governance regime for the aquifer will present a unique challenge, and several current legal systems could provide valuable guidance. While laws addressing transboundary land-based aquifers are still in a nascent stage, customary international law for surface water has evolved over centuries and could provide analogous rules for development of another freshwater resource. This monograph explores principles for sharing natural resources and proposes a governance regime for transboundary offshore aquifers.
Transboundary Water Cooperation in Europe, Götz Reichert analyzes the multidimensional regime for the protection and management of European transboundary freshwater resources that is composed of international water law, the water law of the European Union, and domestic water legislation. Accordingly, qualitative and quantitative aspects regarding surface waters and groundwater are to be managed in an integrated manner to achieve “good water status” of rivers, lakes and aquifers. To this end, “international river basin management plans” provided for by the EU Water Framework Directive are developed by international river commissions for Europe’s major transboundary river basins. Götz Reichert analyzes the various dimensions of the regime including their legal interlinkages and considers the question of whether it is successful in achieving its ambitious goals.
Can we adopt human rights concepts, long used to frame problems of social justice, to define environmental justice? Can existing social institutions provide models and tools for achieving environmental justice? This volume views old models of agency through new lenses and examines how several social institutions, such as law, education and health care, address specific environmental problems. The volume presents arguments for human obligations towards the environment and future generations. Scholars assess the limitations of existing models and others point to recent failures in protecting the interests of indigenous groups or species. And on a hopeful note, examples are given of institutions that promise some success in effecting environmental goals. As this discussion of citizenship suggests, much like environmental justice, a global context both in definition and application is required.