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Edited by Philip G. Altbach, Edward Choi, Mathew R. Allen and Hans de Wit

Although an entirely unknown part of higher education worldwide, there are literally hundreds of universities that are owned/managed by families around the world. These institutions are an important subset of private universities—the fastest growing segment of higher education worldwide. Family-owned or managed higher education institutions (FOMHEI) are concentrated in developing and emerging economies, but also exist in Europe and North America. This book is the first to shed light on these institutions—there is currently no other source on this topic.

Who owns a university? Who is in charge of its management and leadership? How are decisions made? The answers to these key questions would normally be governments or non-profit boards of trustees, or recently, for-profit corporations. There is another category of post-secondary institutions that has emerged in the past half-century challenging the time-honored paradigm of university ownership. Largely unknown, as well as undocumented, is the phenomenon of family-owned or managed higher education institutions. In Asia and Latin America, for example, FOMHEIs have come to comprise a significant segment of a number of higher education systems, as seen in the cases of Thailand, South Korea, India, Brazil and Colombia. We have identified FOMHEIs on all continents—ranging from well-regarded comprehensive universities and top-level specialized institutions to marginal schools. They exist both in the non-profit and for-profit sectors.

Open(ing) Education

Theory and Practice

Edited by Dianne Conrad and Paul Prinsloo

There is no shortage of scholarly research that reflects the growing importance of open education, whether referring to issues surrounding access to education (formal, informal or postformal); different copyright licencing regimes (e.g. Creative Commons); alternative forms of educational delivery such as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), or alternative pathways to learning, curriculum development and delivery and/or assessing and accrediting learning. So what can another publication add to our understanding of open education?

It has become clear that thinking in terms of the binaries of ‘open’ versus ‘closed’ can no longer account and do justice to the wide range of possibilities and the varying factors that destabilise some definitions and practices. In Open(ing) Education: Theory and Practice, the authors therefore map ‘open’ as emerging from a dynamic network or ecology of often mutually constitutive factors resulting in a range of possibilities. The chapters in this book provide us with glimpses of open, opening, and opened, with none of these being permanent states of affairs, but rather contingent, serendipitous, often uncertain, and fluid.

This book is unique not only with regard to its variety of approaches to mapping the various possibilities between open and closed but also with regard to the global spread of its many contributing authors.

African Social Movement Learning

The Case of the Ada Songor Salt Movement

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Jonathan Langdon

How social movements learn in struggle, produce knowledge, and provoke public paradigm shifts have become an important focus of critical adult education in our contemporary turbulent times. And yet, African social movements, and their learning are largely absent from this literature. This work, therefore, provides a rare and much needed African contribution to this field.

African Social Movement Learning: The Case of the Ada Songor Salt Movement speaks to this gap in the literature, laying out an entry-point to an African-centered account of learning in struggle on the continent. However, this entry-point quickly turns to an in-depth sharing of one particular case of African social movement learning. Based on 9 years of research with the Ada Songor salt movement in Ghana, the book provides a detailed account of learning through defending communal access to West Africa’s largest salt yielding lagoon in the face of local, national and global efforts to expropriate this resource. The book shares the knowledge production of the movement, as well as the ways in which the movement has restoried its struggle to meet new challenges. Songs, tapestries, demonstrations, manifestoes, popular education approaches, and book production all feature in these efforts.

Artistic Mentoring as a Decolonizing Methodology

A Collaborative Painting Ethnography with Maya Artists Pedro Rafael González Chavajay and Paula Nicho Cúmez

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Kryssi Staikidis

To expand the possibilities of “doing arts thinking” from a non-Eurocentric view, Artistic Mentoring as a Decolonizing Methodology: A Collaborative Painting Ethnography with Maya Artists Pedro Rafael González Chavajay and Paula Nicho Cúmez is grounded in Indigenous perspectives on arts practice, arts research, and art education. Mentored in painting for eighteen years by two Guatemalan Maya artists, Kryssi Staikidis, a North American painter and art education professor, uses both Indigenous and decolonizing methodologies, which involve respectful collaboration, and continuously reexamines her positions as student, artist, and ethnographer searching to redefine and transform the roles of the artist as mentor, historian/activist, ethnographer, and teacher.

The primary purpose of the book is to illuminate the Maya artists as mentors, the collaborative and holistic processes underlying their painting, and the teaching and insights from their studios. These include Imagined Realism, a process excluding rendering from observation, and the fusion of pedagogy and curriculum into a holistic paradigm of decentralized teaching, negotiated curriculum, personal and cultural narrative as thematic content, and the surrounding visual culture and community as text.

The Maya artist as cultural historian creates paintings as platforms of protest and vehicles of cultural transmission, for example, genocide witnessed in paintings as historical evidence. The mentored artist as ethnographer cedes the traditional ethnographic authority of the colonizing stance to the Indigenous expert as partner and mentor, and under this mentorship analyzes its possibilities as decolonizing arts-based qualitative inquiry. For the teacher, Maya world views broaden and integrate arts practice and arts research, inaugurating possibilities to transform arts education.

Engaging Learners with Semiotics

Lessons Learned from Reading the Signs

Ruth Gannon-Cook and Kathryn Ley

Semiotics has explained the cognitive mechanisms of a complex, subtle and important phenomenon affecting all human interactions and communications across socio-cultural, socio-economic groups. Semiotics has captured a durable and enriching functionality from multiple disciplines including psychology, anthropology, sociology, philosophy, marketing and their multidisciplinary off-spring, such as, educational psychology, consumer psychology, visual literacy, media studies, etc. Semiotic treatises have explored critical factors affecting the relationship between any intended message and the message recipient’s interpretation. The factors that shape interpretation inherently affect learning and often directly affect learner engagement with the content. Learning environments have been culturally-laden communication experiences which academics, largely segmented by discipline, have described but often cloaked in semiotic jargon.

Each chapter integrates example after example of semiotics in everyday activities and events, such as stories, graphics, movies, games, infographics, and educational strategies. The chapters also present the most salient semiotic features for learning environments. The book describes semiotics as a communications phenomenon with practical implications for educators to enhance courses and programs with semiotic features in any educational environment but especially in mediated e-learning environments.

Migrants and Comparative Education

Call to Re/Engagement

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Edited by Zehavit Gross

Migration is one of the major phenomena that characterizes the modern world and even more post-modernity. Improved transportation and advanced technology have facilitated transition from place to place and this phenomenon of greater mobility has changed the world and humanity. Given the fact that many countries in both the developed and underdeveloped world face similar challenges due to the current mass migration, comparative research in terms of the responses of government and non-government organizations (NGOs), both local and international, allows for a deeper understanding of ways of approaching the many challenges relating to immigration and education. The comparative dimension enables both scholars and policy makers to compare and contrast different approaches and to weigh up what approach is most suitable for their circumstances.

The aim of Migrants and Comparative Education: Call to Re/Engagement is to bring together new research and conceptualizations on education’s complex and evolving role in the immigration process in different contexts around the world, at different levels of education, and from different theoretical perspectives. It is hoped that by so doing a better understanding will emerge of the issues and challenges associated with immigration that can assist policy makers and practitioners.

Bringing Forth a World

Engaged Pedagogy in the Japanese University

Edited by Joff P.N. Bradley and David Kennedy

Offering a critical yet constructive response to the perceived crises in tertiary foreign language education in the Japanese university, the contributors to Bringing Forth a World provide theoretical and practical solutions which together act as a prolegomena to bringing forth a world. Theirs is an ecology of contribution in liberal arts education which takes responsibility for the care for youth, and contests intellectual passivity and indifference in foreign language instruction.

The editors proffer a transformative, engaged and multidisciplinary liberal arts pedagogy, one at odds with forms of lowest common denominator, one-size-fits-all, and standardized provision. In response to the prevalent business-dominated model, they demonstrate an applied format of multiliteracy theory—one with semiotic, multimodal, feminist dimensions—which is regionally specific and better accounts for divergent forms of human expression and perception. The writers not only take account of the intellectual and mental issues in the student demographic but also in the teaching profession which suffers from widespread anxiety, job insecurity and a lack of autonomy, experimentation and innovation.

Philosophically, the contributors to this book demand a form of meaning-making which is fundamentally social and creative, and which celebrates processes of ‘becoming-other’ in-between the student and teacher that seldom, if ever, follow a predictable trajectory. It is hoped that readers will embrace the spirit of the book, pick up its philosophical gauntlet to think otherwise than prevalent standardized models of teaching and learning, and therefore will use its core tenets to experiment with different ways of educating the youth of today.

Deterritorializing Language, Teaching, Learning, and Research

Deleuzo-Guattarian Perspectives on Second Language Education

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Edited by Francis Bangou, Monica Waterhouse and Douglas Fleming

It is now recognized that language teachers and learners are both users and creators of knowledge in socially, culturally, politically, materially complex, and unpredictable environments. With this in mind, an increasing number of researchers in Second Language Education have progressively broken away from traditional ways of studying educational practices to find novel, and more complex ways to conceptualize and study language teachers’ and learners’ teaching and learning practices and knowledge development.

This book is in line with these trends, and should be considered as the actualization of experimentations with novel ways to apprehend the interrelationships between language and education by drawing on the conceptual repertoire of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and his collaborator Félix Guattari. To guide us through this reflexive journey ten scholars, specialized in the field of Second Language Education, call on their experiences as language educators and researchers to explore the intersections between language, teaching, learning, and research, focusing on the experiences of diverse populations (e.g. students, immigrants, teachers, etc.) in multiple settings (e.g. Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, universities, and family literacy intervention programs).

Through this book, new insights and lines of thought are generated on how research and educative practices can be transformed to reimagine second language teaching, learning, and research to think differently about the experiences of language teachers, learners, and researchers, and disrupt the processes that may prevent us from innovating and seizing future opportunities.

Contributors are: Francis Bangou, Maria Bastien-Valenca, Joff P. N. Bradley, Martina Emke, Douglas Fleming, Roumiana Ilieva, Brian Morgan, Enrica Piccardo, Aisha Ravindran, Gene Vasilopoulos and Monica Waterhouse.

Edited by Theodosia Prodromou

New digital technologies offer many exciting opportunities to educators who are looking to develop better teaching practices. When technologies are new, however, the potential for beneficial and effective implementations and applications is not yet fully recognized. This book is intended to provide teachers and researchers with a wide range of ideas from researchers working to integrate the new technology of Augmented Reality into educational settings and processes. It is hoped that the research and theory presented here can support both teachers and researchers in future work with this exciting new technology.

Contributors are: Miriam Adamková, Gilles Aldon, Panayiota Anastasi, Ferdinando Arzarello, Martina Babinská, Robert Bohdal, Francisco Botana, Constadina Charalambous, Eva Csandova, Omer Deperlioglu, Monika Dillingerová, Christos Dimopoulos, Jiri Dostal, Jihad El-Sana, Michael N. Fried, Maria Fuchsová, Marianthi Grizioti, Tomas Hlava, Markus Hohenwarter, Kateřina Jančaříková, Konstantinos Katzis, Lilla Korenova, Utku Köse, Zoltán Kovács,Blanka Kožík Lehotayová, Maria Kožuchová, Chronis Kynigos, Ilona-Elefteryja Lasica, Zsolt Lavicza, Álvaro Martínez, Efstathios Mavrotheris, Katerina Mavrou, Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Georgios Papaioannou, Miroslava Pirháčová Lapšanská, Stavros Pitsikalis, Corinne Raffin, Tomás Recio, Cristina Sabena, Florian Schacht, Eva Severini, Martina Siposova, Zacharoula Smyrnaiou, Nayia Stylianidou, Osama Swidan, Christos Tiniakos, Melanie Tomaschko, Renata Tothova, Christina Vasou, and Ibolya Veress-Bágyi.

Educating Media Literacy

The Need for Critical Media Literacy in Teacher Education

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Allison T. Butler

Critical media literacy is a necessary part of young people’s education and can foster the space for a more thoroughly informed and involved citizenry. In order to make critical media literacy sustainable in K-12 classrooms, learning and application of it must begin with teachers, preferably during their formal schooling. Educating Media Literacy is a manifesto for the inclusion of media literacy in teacher education and, by extension, in K-12 classrooms. Through a discussion of critical media literacy’s aims and the role of teacher education in the United States, this book argues for the inclusion of critical media literacy in teacher education.

Educating Media Literacy addresses two separate topics – teacher education and media literacy – and illustrates how they are intertwined: The United States struggles simultaneously with how best to train and retain prospective teachers and how to foster a better understanding of mainstream media. These two struggles can join forces and move towards a solution through the following: The inclusion of critical media literacy in teacher education programs.