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Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 2: The Expeditions of H.A. Lorentz to New Guinea, 1903-1914

National Archives of the Netherlands

on microfiche

Background
In 2004 Moran Micropublications started a new series of archival publications on microfiche on the theme of science in a colonial context. The first part consisted of the archive of the “Indies Committee for Scientific Research” (order number MMP112) (in Dutch Indisch Comité voor Wetenschappelijke Onderzoekingen), which organized and sent out many scientific expeditions to various parts of the Indonesian archipelago in the last years of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries. In these years the world’s second largest island, New Guinea, was still largely unknown to the outside. The Dutch, who claimed half the island as part of their East Indies colony, were anxious to explore it for both commercial and scientific reasons and organized a series of expeditions there, among others in 1903, 1907, and 1909-1910. H.A. Lorentz (1871-1944, not to be confused with the Nobel-prize winning Dutch physicist Hendrik A. Lorentz, 1853-1928) participated in the first and led the second two. His personal archive of the three expeditions contains a great deal of correspondence with individuals and institutions in several countries and languages with an index of correspondents in the appendix (Bijlage I, pp.21-26 below); much information on the organization and infrastructure of the expeditions; and of course diaries, field notes, draft reports and other documents concerning the local population and the geography, flora and fauna of the regions explored. Also included are several maps, newspaper clippings and articles and manuscripts of his two major publications in which he recounted the first and third of the expeditions: Eenige maanden onder de papoea’s [Several months among the Papuans] (1905) and Zwarte menschen, witte bergen [Black people, white mountains] (1913, new edition 2005). His archive forms a valuable supplement to that of the Indies Committee.

Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 3: Papers of Prof. C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773-1854) on the East Indies (c. 1755-1828)

National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

on microfiche

Background
In 2004 Moran Micropublications started a new series of archival publications on microfiche on the theme of science in a colonial context. The first part consisted of the archive of the “Indies Committee for Scientific Research” (order number MMP112) and the second that of “The Expeditions of H.A. Lorentz to New Guinea, 1903-1914” (order number MMP130). Here we present part 3 of this series with order number MMP131.

The collection
Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt was born in the Rhineland province of Prussia in 1773, but moved to the Netherlands at a young age. He studied science and philosophy there, later becoming a professor of natural history. From 1817 to 1822 he served the Dutch in the East Indies, recently recovered from British control after the Napoleonic wars ended in 1815, as director of affairs for agriculture, arts and sciences. He is best known as the founder of the famous botanical gardens at Buitenzorg (now Bogor) on Java (1817). He traveled extensively in the archipelago in these years. His papers micropublished here concern among others gathering samples of flora and fauna for the natural history collections in the Netherlands and scientific investigations into various subjects, such as earthquakes and volcanoes, mining and agriculture. Also included are various papers and memoranda (memories) of officials of the VOC (Dutch East India Company) from the second-half of the eighteenth century, as well as a short travel account by the Belgian artist A.A.J. Payen and a few documents from Reinwardt’s period as professor in Leiden after his return from the Indies.

More materials sought
As appears from the introduction to Reinwardt and the present collection by A. M. Tempelaars reproduced below on pages 9-12 in Dutch and English, other archival materials from Reinwardt seem to have found their way into the holdings of the University Library in Leiden. From other sources as well it appears that there are still other repositories with Reinwardt holdings. Moran Micropublications will be making efforts to identify and also micropublish these documents if possible.

More information
More information on Reinwardt’s career and scientific achievements can be found on the website of the Netherlands National Herbarium in Leiden:

http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/fmcollectors/R/ReinwardtCGC.htm

and in the publications cited below in the Guide (p. 9).

Various Authors & Editors

The Indonesian Hajj
Part 2: The archives of the Dutch Vice-consulate and Medical Officer at Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 1937-1950

Background
In 1872 the Dutch opened a consulate (elevated to legation in 1930) in the Red Sea port of Jiddah (also spelled Jeddah), the gateway to the holy city of Mecca, to care for and monitor the activities of the thousands of pilgrims coming each year from the Netherlands East Indies for the hajj. The consulate’s archive is available from Moran on microfiche (order no. MMP106).

Vice-consulate in Mecca
The Netherlands enjoyed a good reputation in Arabia and the Indonesian pilgrims were regarded as the “rice of the Holy Land”. They were often the most numerous as well as being the wealthiest and most willing of pilgrims. In recognition of this situation, the Netherlands, alone of all countries, including Muslim lands, was granted the privilege of opening a vice-consulate in Mecca itself in 1923, staffed by an Indonesian Muslim. He was joined there in 1927 by a medical doctor, also an Indonesian Muslim, who ran a permanent policlinic for the benefit of the visiting pilgrims and the important Djawa colony of some 2,000 Indonesians living full-time in Mecca (the so-called Moekimien). The archives of vice-consulate and legation doctor covering the years 1937-1950 are now also available on microfiche as a small, but interesting supplement to the Jiddah archive.
The pilgrimage was not only a religious event, but also formed an essential source of income for the cities of Mecca and Medina, the Hejaz region along the Red Sea coast and the country as a whole until supplanted by royalties from the production of oil. A primary task of the consulate and vice-consulate was therefore to protect the Indonesian pilgrims from possible exploitation by unscrupulous locals. A second major concern was the health of the individual pilgrims and the maintenance of public health by preventing contagious diseases such as small pox and cholera.

War and decolonization
The period covered by these archives stands in the shadow of the Second World War, the Indonesian revolution of 1945 and the ensuing drama of decolonization leading to the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949. In its best years between 1927 and the Depression an average of 40,000 Indonesians per year had made the pilgrimage. The 1930s were more difficult due to the economic collapse and the coming of war in 1939 stopped the flow of pilgrims entirely. The occupation of the Netherlands by the Nazis in May 1940 and especially the fall of the Netherlands Indies to Japan in 1942 brought difficult times for the Indonesian community in Mecca as remittances from home became impossible. The legation doctor in these years was reduced to making his own small-pox vaccine with whatever means he had at hand. After the war a cautious reprise begins for the Indonesian hajj in 1946, but the political and military conflict between the Dutch and Indonesian Republican nationalists continued to disturb the flow of pilgrims, as well as causing tensions among the Moekimien and among the Dutch-Indonesian diplomatic personnel. In 1947 some 4,000 Indonesians made the journey to Mecca. With more than 10,000 pilgrims in 1948 the best results in 10 years were achieved, but it was to be the last pilgrimage under the complete “door to door aegis” of the Dutch. The second “police action” against the Republic of Indonesia in December-January 1948-1949 was a military success, but a diplomatic disaster that finally forced the Netherlands to let its colony go. The 1949 hajj was overshadowed by the coming transfer of sovereignty, while that of 1950 was under Indonesian control, though for the final time Dutch ships were still used to transport the pilgrims. On May 1 of that year the Dutch diplomatic representation in Jiddah and Mecca passed to independent Indonesian hands and the archives of the legation and vice-consulate were repatriated to the Netherlands.

Source
H.H. Dingemans, Bij Allah’s buren [ With Allah’s neighbors]. Rotterdam, 1973.
Dingemans was chargé d’affaires at Jiddah in 1939-1940 and legation head ( gezant) from 1945 until the mission’s closing in 1950.

Various Authors & Editors

Western Travellers in the Islamic World, Part 1

These texts document the political, diplomatic, commercial, and cultural relations between the Islamic world and the West in the pre-modern period. Some focus on military conflicts, others on peaceful contacts, but all allow us to reconstruct the shifting images and biases in the West, concerning Muslims and the Islamic world, that are still relevant today.

Well-known works include those by Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq (1520/1-1592); Pietro della Valle (1586-1652); J.B. Tavernier (1605-1689); Jean de Thevenot (1633-1667); John Chardin (1643-1713); Cornelis de Bruyn (le Brun; 1652-1726); J.P. de Tournefort (1656-1708); Richard Pococke (1704-1765); James Bruce (1730-1794); and Carsten Niebuhr (1733-1815).
Less often quoted, but equally interesting are the accounts of Palestine of Jewish travellers in the fifteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century; Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor; B.E.A. Rottiers, Itinéraire de Tiflis à Constantinople; and Adolphus Slade's Records of Travel , and several accounts of travel to Afghanistan, Kurdistan, and Central Asia.

This collection will be published in two parts. This first part contains titles previously published in other IDC collections (Early Western Books, Travels, Armenian Sources).
Dialogue with People of Living Faiths

Religious dialogue
An important instrument in the ecumenical movement, the WCC’s initiation of a dialogue with people belonging to other religions signaled a willingness to make sense of the fact that “Christians today live out their lives in actual community with people who may be committed to faiths and ideologies other than their own”. It also implies that dialogue “be recognized as a welcome way of obedience to the commandment of the Decalogue: ‘You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor’… not to disfigure the image of our neighbors of different faiths”.

People of Living Faiths
Recognizing that those committed to other religious traditions are people of living faiths is an invitation to Christians to reflect afresh on “what God may be doing in the lives of hundreds of millions of men and women who live in and seek community together with Christians, but along different ways”. “Ideologies”, once part of the program, was dismantled following the collapse of state Socialism in eastern Europe. One could question the decision but from the beginning we responded to the need for good relations between Christians in countries dominated by Marxist ideologies.

An ‘adventure of the churches’
The 1971 Central Committee understood "the engagement of the World Council in dialogue … as a common adventure of the churches". The word adventure takes on several meanings at once. It may mean a hazardous or even questionable undertaking, but it may also signify an unusual or exciting experience. The issue of interreligious relations and dialogue in the history of the World Council of Churches resonates with both meanings of the word ‘adventure’. Interreligious dialogue has always been and will continue to be closely scrutinized. Some Christians fear that such dialogue is equivalent to syncretism or a fusion of religions, but there have also always been Christians for whom dialogue is a way to constructively acknowledge religious plurality and look for ways to take today's context seriously. “More than ever, we sense a growing need not just for dialogue with people of other faiths but for genuine relationships with them. Increased awareness of religious plurality, the potential role of religion in conflict, and the growing place of religion in public life present urgent challenges that require greater understanding and cooperation among people of diverse faiths.” What was considered an adventure almost 35 years ago is a necessity in today’s world of rapid change and globalization.

Different ways of dialogue
If dialogue thirty years ago was mainly associated with formal conversation between two groups, dialogue today is manifest in many different ways. Most common is the dialogue of life that goes on in all pluralistic communities. People of many different faiths - Christians, Muslims, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists - live and work together sharing a common life. Although these dialogues go unnoticed and are not consciously religious, these encounters help establish solid human relationships. A similar dialogue also takes place where people of different traditions come together to struggle for justice, peace, human rights and other issues that concern society at large.
There are three types of organized dialogue. In the most common forms, multi-lateral and bi-lateral dialogues, representatives come together to explore a subject relevant to the communities concerned such as the relationship of religion to the family, to education, to the state, etc.. In addition to clarifying differences, such dialogues facilitate the building up of trust and openness between religious groups.
A second type of organized dialogue could be called ‘academic dialogue’; exponents of different religious faiths meet and discuss the theological or philosophical bases of their traditions. Genuine attempts are made to arrive at a common appreciation of the way in which each religious tradition has sought to explain and approach reality. Such dialogues help break down century-old prejudices and misconceptions. They enrich, deepen, challenge and correct the way some religions have understood and approached the religious life of other traditions.
Another form of dialogue could be described as ‘spiritual dialogue.’; believers attempt to meet each other, as it were, in the "cave of the heart". They become familiar with each other's spiritual and worship life. Often such dialogues take the form of participating in prayer or mediation. This type of dialogue remains controversial because Christians are not agreed on whether it is possible to participate in the spiritual life of their neighbors without compromising their own faith.

The Office on Interreligious Relations and Dialogue serves the WCC constituency:
• in relations and dialogue with communities of people of other faiths;
• in promoting sustainable relations between Christians and neighbors of other faiths primarily through multi-lateral and bi-lateral dialogue;
• in drawing ecumenical attention to issues of religious plurality and the role of religion in the world today;
• in fostering dialogue among churches and the ecumenical movement on Christian self-understanding in a world of religious plurality;
• in monitoring major trends in religion and in relations between faith communities;
• in providing advice and assistance regarding the interfaith dimension of WCC priorities.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949

Introduction
The end of the Second World War in August 1945 sounded the death knell of Dutch colonialism in Indonesia. The proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia by Sukarno and Hatta on 17 August 1945 ushered in a confusing and complicated period of anticolonial struggle, civil war, military action by the Dutch and negotiations between the parties that ultimately led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic on 27 December 1949.

New series
These collections form the second part in a new series of micropublications on the end of Dutch colonialism in Asia being planned and carried out in cooperation with the National Archives in The Hague. It can be regarded as the continuation of the now dormant series "War and Decolonization" by MMF Publications, with which it does not overlap. The five parts of that series are also available from Moran Micropublications.

Focus
The new series has as theme "the Dutch political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" not only in the pivotal years 1945-1949, but also extending into the early 1960s in order to cover the process of decolonization of Netherlands New Guinea, over which the Dutch had refused to transfer sovereignty at the end of 1949. It will also reach back into the 1930s and the years of war and occupation (1942-1945) to provide the necessary background to the crisis that ensued on 17 August 1945.

Part 1: Secret Archive
In consultation with archivists at the National Archives the first documents chosen for micropublication are from the Secret Archive of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor-General (in Dutch: Geheim archief van de Algemene Secretarie en van het kabinet van de gouverneur-generaal).

The General Secretariat
The General Secretariat was the administrative apparatus that assisted the Governor-general in his task from 1816 until its dissolution in 1950. Its archives, formed in Indonesia, contain a virtually complete account of the
political activities and statecraft of the Netherlands Indies Government. The secret archives of the Algemene Secretarie were brought to the Netherlands after Indonesian independence and are now in the National Archives. The public part of its archive was transferred to the Republic of Indonesia and is housed in the Arsip Nasional in Jakarta.

Documents
The documents reproduced in the present collection concern the "Political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" from the end of the Second World War until the transfer of sovereignty at the end of 1949. They trace the development of events in great detail and allow the study of this conflict in all its aspects. The documents include many secret intelligence reports, captured Republican papers, political memoranda and many others.

Inventory
The collection has been completely inventoried by archivists of the National Archives and is now available from Moran Micropublications. The inventory is available for consultation free of charge from Moran and is also posted on our website (see right column).

Part 2: Dutch Civil Administrators (bestuursambtenaren)
The backbone of Dutch colonial rule in the East Indies was formed by the Binnenlands Bestuur manned by professional civil administrators of various ranks known as bestuursambtenaren. Often graduates of the special program in “Indology” at the University of Leiden, they were trained in the local cultures and languages as well as in economics, administration and customary law ( adatrecht) in order to function well in their posts at local and regional levels. In consultation with archivists at the National Archives the papers of five civil administrators who worked in various parts of the Indonesian archipelago in the period 1930s to 1950s have been selected for micropublication. Additional parts are under consideration.

Part 3: Papers of the Members
Background
The Commissie-Generaal voor Nederlandsch-Indië was set up by act of Parliament in September 1946 and charged with the temporary exercise of government power in the Netherlands Indies and more specifically with preparing a new (federal) political structure for the colony. The Commission was chaired by former prime minister Willem Schermerhorn, with P. Sanders as secretary and M. van Poll as member. The highest Dutch official in the Indies, Lieutenant-Governor-General Dr. H.J. van Mook joined the Commission ex officio. The Commission sat in Batavia, capital of the Netherlands Indies.
To achieve its purpose the Commission reopened negotiations with the Republic of Indonesia that had been proclaimed by Sukarno and Hatta on 17 August 1945 but not recognized by the Dutch although it held power in many areas of Java, Madura and Sumatra. These talks soon led to a draft agreement between the parties signed at Linggajati in the mountains near Cirebon on Java’s north coast on 15 November 1946. The agreement recognized the Republic’s authority de facto, but not yet de jure in the areas it held and called for the founding of a democratic, sovereign United States of Indonesia, of which the Republic would be one of the states, alongside others such as “East Indonesia” and Borneo (significantly and ominously for the future New Guinea was not mentioned). This federal system would form a union with the Netherlands under the Dutch queen. The agreement would soon prove impossible to implement.
In the Netherlands the Commission’s swift and resolute action in search of a solution to the colonial dilemma aroused a great deal of suspicion and resistance. Schermerhorn and Van Mook were seen as being far too progressive, even anticolonial “wreckers of the kingdom”. Among the Indonesian Republicans as well there were many who believed that Linggajati gave away far too much. They regarded it as at most a way-station on the road to complete independence and refused to accept a federal Indonesia. Moderates under the leadership of Sutan Sjahir were sidetracked. The struggle continued for a unitary republic extending from “Sabang to Merauke”, that is from the western tip of Sumatra all the way through the archipelago to New Guinea. The de facto recognition in Linggajati was used by the Republic to win international sympathy. Differences of interpretation of this accord therefore remained very great and it and the Commission were effectively repudiated by the Dutch government, which turned to military action against the Republic in July 1947 (first “Police action”). Although it had been overtaken by events, the Commission was only officially disbanded and its members honorably discharged on 15 November 1947, a year after Linggajati had been initialled.

Papers of Commission members micropublished
The Commissie-Generaal and the Linggajati agreement represented an important moment in the process of decolonization. The persistent virulence of colonial sentiments in the Netherlands and the strength of the Republican ideal in Indonesia were revealed. The federalist approach and proposed union with the Netherlands were shown to be problematic, although the Dutch continued down that road up to and including the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949 to a federal Republic of the United States of Indonesia, which was swept aside and replaced by the unitary Republic of Indonesia on the fifth anniversary of the Proclamation of Independence on 17 August 1950. It took many years for the Dutch to come to terms with the tumultuous developments of the years 1945-1950. At the 60th anniversary ceremonies of the Proclamation in August 2005, the Dutch foreign minister finally conceded that Indonesian sovereignty in effect should date, de jure as well as de facto, from 17 August 1945 and not from December 1949. The present publication in microform of the papers of the Commission’s members will benefit research into this pivotal period in the history of decolonization.

This collection includes the sections:
Part 1. Documents from the Secret Archives of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor General
Part 2-1: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Minutes of Federal Conferences/BFO (1948-1949)
Part 2-2: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra, and the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955
Part 2-3: Papers of L.L.A. Maurenbrecher (1934-1954): Java/Celebes/New Guinea
Part 2-4: Papers of A.J. Piekaar (1933-1955 [1959]): Sumatra
Part 2-5: Papers of J. Zwart (1946-1947): Java/NEFIS (intelligence service)
Part 2-6: Papers of J. van Baal (1934-1964): New Guinea, Lombok/Bali
Part 3-1: The General-Commission for the Netherlands Indies: Papers of W. Schermerhorn (chairman)
Part 3-2: The General-Commission for the Netherlands Indies: Papers of M.J.M. van Poll (member)
Part 3-3: The General-Commission for the Netherlands Indies: Papers of P. Sanders (secretary)

Series:

Various Authors & Editors

Early Russian Cinema, Part 1
Russian Cinematographic Press (1907-1918)

Cinema in late-imperial Russia
In a quantitative sense Russia's cinematographic press comprises a modest segment of the general stream of the Russian periodical press at the beginning of the 20th century. However, in the dynamic of its development, the tempo of its reproduction and distribution, it far outstripped publication of all other contemporary genres and directions, and in this fact alone vividly reflected the general popularity of cinema in Russian society. In view of the fact that the documents connected with the history of the early Russian cinema and the overwhelming majority of materials on film have not survived up to this time, these publications constitute a unique collection of testimonials about the general and particular characteristics of the Russian cinematographic press of the 1900s and 1910s.

The art of the new age
The pages of these cinematographic publications have preserved for history not only the first examples of cinema theory, but also a very wide range of reflections of the artistic consciousness of the art of the new age. They chronicled all the variety and individual details of the cinematographic life of the Russian capitals and provinces, recorded consecutively the growth of cinematography in the cultural life of the country. The publications dedicated to the screen carefully documented the dynamic of the development of film production and distribution, traced the actions of the authorities in controlling screenings and noted all other accompanying factors and circumstances affecting the establishment of the new art.

The collection
Examining these sources, the researcher can reconstruct the film repertoire and assemble almost a complete list of domestic and foreign films shown on screens in Russia; he will find in them a detailed description of pictures, reviews by critics, censored materials, etc. In addition, they contain extremely valuable information about other forms of contemporary entertainment culture - the theater of miniatures, cabaret and music hall.
Religious Minorities: The Waldenses
Polemic and historiography of a religious minority between 1510 and 1712

The aim of the Reformation
Nowadays "new" is considered good and "old" obsolete. Values were different in the 16th century, when "antiquity" symbolized truth and goodness. Anything new was suspect. That was why Catholic theologians accused Luther, Zwingli and Calvin of devising a new doctrine and founding new churches. Protestant theologians disagreed, arguing that the aim of the Reformation was to do away with the novelties unrelated to the Bible that popes had introduced over the preceding centuries, such as the doctrines of purgatory, transubstantiation and papal primacy. The Reformation was an effort to restore the "old" doctrine of the "old" church rather than a quest for innovation. As had been the case in the old Apostolic Church, the Bible should once again become the sole standard for the Christian doctrine and way of life.

Return to the Apostolic Church
Protestant theologians interpreted "antiquity" as the return to the Bible and the Apostolic Church rather than continuity with the medieval church. They regarded the Middle Ages as a period in which the Catholic Church had suppressed the old Biblical truth and substituted its own novelties. Even in these dark ages, though, they believed that God had preserved a "remnant" faithful to the Bible. They considered such individuals to be the ones condemned by the Catholic Church as heretics, such as John Wycliffe, Jan Hus and Savonarola, who henceforth counted as "precursors" to the Reformation.

The Waldenses
In 1556 Flacius Illyricus published his major work Catalogus testium veritatis, in which he paid tribute to the Waldenses by assigning them an honorary position in "the chain of witnesses to the truth." The Waldenses were one of the few remaining medieval heretical movements. They had survived all persecutions in the Western Alps on the border between France and Italy. In 1532 they joined the Reformation and by 1556 were starting to form their own communities after the model of Calvin in Geneva. Historically, the Waldenses originated with Peter Waldo of Lyon, who, following the example of the apostles, decided to travel around in poverty as a preacher in 1174. Since the 13th century, however, the Waldenses themselves claimed to have their basis in the apostles. They maintained this stand after joining the Reformation movement.
Flacius Illyricus remained sceptical about this legend. In the 17th century, however, many Dutch Calvinist, Lutheran and Anglican theologians believed the reports in the Waldensian historiographies that this group dated back to the apostles and regarded the adherence of the Waldenses to the Reformation as proof that Protestantism had truly restored the "old" doctrine and church. Henceforth, the Waldenses came to be regarded as "progenitors of the Reformation". This view became so widespread that the Waldenses consistently received political and financial support from Protestants throughout Europe whenever they were persecuted.

Modern histiography
Catholic theologians, on the other hand, had by the Middle Ages already challenged the view that the Waldenses had their basis in the apostles. This polemic climaxed with Bossuet's Histoire des variations published in 1688. The modern historiography of the 19th and 20th centuries has definitively "de-mythologized" the Waldenses by presenting sources linking the Waldenses to Waldo and refuting any ties to the apostles. In addition, it is demonstrated in this historiography that the Waldenses abandoned virtually all their medieval traditions upon joining the Reformation and were therefore definitely not Protestants before the fact.
Nonetheless, the Waldenses retained a special significance in Protestant circles. They continue to be regarded as "precursors" to the Reformation, and some churches in North America, such as the Baptists and the Adventists, even claim to be rooted in the medieval Waldenses.

This collection
This microfiche series documents the historiography and polemic about the Waldenses between 1510 and 1712 and reveals how prominently the Waldenses figured in the debate over whether the Reformation churches were old or new. Accordingly, this series is worthwhile both for historical research on impressions of the Reformation and for the very current question as to the raison d'être of Protestant churches today.
This series features a unique collection of rare books and pamphlets about the Waldenses, of which many are the only copies in existence. They have been collected from thirty libraries, most from the library of the Società di Studi Valdesi in Torre Pellice and the Biblioteca Reale in Turin. This collection is therefore of tremendous value for studying the history of books. The series also comprises the reference works by Crespin, Pantaleon, Flacius Illyricus and Bossuet, which are still immensely important for historical research on "heretical" movements during the Middle Ages and the Protestant "martyrs" of the 16th century.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-1: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Minutes of Federal Conferences/BFO (1948-1949)

Short biography
Auke Johannes Vleer was born in Friesland in 1911. After finishing his secondary education he left for the Netherlands Indies in 1930 to follow with success a two-year training course in colonial administration ( bestuursschool). His first assignments were in the residencies of Aceh and Riau from 1932 to 1936. In October 1936 he returned to the Netherlands and studied Indology at the University of Leiden, specializing in Indonesian law ( Indisch recht), obtaining his degree in 1940 (he would later also earn a degree in Dutch law). The outbreak of war in Europe and the German occupation of the Netherlands prevented him from resuming his career in the colony. During the war he worked for the Dutch Red Cross. At war’s end he was among the first group of colonial civil servants to be dispatched to the Indies under the authority of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) to restore order. Posted to Medan on Sumatra’s East Coast he served as liaison officer with the British troops stationed there to supervise the Japanese surrender. In 1946 he was appointed head of the local administration in Banka and Billiton where he first became involved in Dutch attempts to set up a federal United States of Indonesia (see below). In 1948-1949 Vleer assumed the role of secretary at the Federal Conferences (FC) held at Bandung and then that of secretary-general of the Assembly for Federal Consultation ( Bijeenkomst voor federale overleg, BFO). In this capacity he took part in the Round Table Conference held in The Hague from August to November 1949 that finally resulted in the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949.

In 1950 Vleer accepted a position as Commissioner for the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra with Palembang as base until growing political tensions led him to return to the Netherlands in 1956. While in Indonesia he had also taught law and sociology at universities in Jakarta and Palembang. Back in the Netherlands he played a role in setting up a new technical college (now university) in Eindhoven and ended his public career as mayor of Enschede from 1965 to 1977. He died in 1981.

Federalism in the process of decolonization
A persistent Dutch response to the Indonesian revolution that broke out after the Proclamation of Independence by the Republic in August 1945 was to promote the idea of a federal Indonesia, with or without the Republic as one of the states, that would enter a union with the Netherlands under the Dutch queen. On the Dutch side this approach was favored by among others the Lieutenant-Governor-General H. J. van Mook, the highest Dutch official in the Indies since no governor-general had been appointed after the War. In a conference held at Malino in South Celebes in July 1946 the Dutch brought together local rulers from among other places Borneo and eastern Indonesia, as well as representatives of Christian and ethnic groups to make a start on this project. On the Indonesian Republican side, Sutan Sjahrir was willing to cooperate with the Dutch on this plan, which was enshrined in the agreement of Linggajati of November 1946 (see part 3 of this micropublication). When Linggajati proved difficult to implement because of mutual distrust, Van Mook proceeded on his own to set up new states, the first of which was East Indonesia in December 1946. After the first “police action” of July 1947 in which the Dutch regained much territory from the Republic, the move in this direction was accelerated until there were some 15 federal states or regions by late 1948. Representatives of these entities met in a series of Federal Conferences held in Bandung from May 1948 to June 1949. In July 1948 the Dutch further created an Assembly for Federal Consultation (Bijeenkomst voor Federale Overleg, BFO) in which the leaders of these states sat. The BFO sent its own delegation to the Round Table Conference as mentioned above. Federalism was greatly resented by Indonesian Republicans who saw it as no more than a stratagem of the Dutch for holding on to resource-rich parts of the country. Although the Republic accepted a federal structure for the transfer of sovereignty, it was soon dispatched and replaced by a unitary Indonesian state by August 1950.

The papers
Vleer was an excellent and painstaking administrator who left a thorough and well-organized archive behind. Two series from his papers have been selected here for micropublication as part 2.1 and 2.2 of our series:

Part 2.1
Vleer’s archive contains a complete collection, often supplemented by tables of contents he drew up himself, of the minutes and other documents of
• the Federal Conferences at Bandung, May 1948-June 1949, in stencil in Dutch and Indonesian
• the proceedings and appendices of the meetings in Indonesia and The Hague of the Bijeenkomst voor Federale overleg (BFO), July 1948-August 1949 in stencil in Dutch and Indonesian
• the proceedings and appendices of meetings of the BFO delegation with the Netherlands government (“Haags overleg”), September-October 1948

The fact that these series of documents were very incomplete in the archive of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government ( Algemene Secretarie), and therefore not included in the inventory of that body, makes Vleer’s collection indispensable for research into this aspect of the decolonization process.

Sources
Robert Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 2000).
M.C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia (1st edition, London, 1981; 3rd edition, Stanford, 2001).

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-2: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra & the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955

Short biography
Auke Johannes Vleer was born in Friesland in 1911. After finishing his secondary education he left for the Netherlands Indies in 1930 to follow with success a two-year training course in colonial administration ( bestuursschool). His first assignments were in the residencies of Aceh and Riau from 1932 to 1936. In October 1936 he returned to the Netherlands and studied Indology at the University of Leiden, specializing in Indonesian law ( Indisch recht), obtaining his degree in 1940 (he would later also earn a degree in Dutch law). The outbreak of war in Europe and the German occupation of the Netherlands prevented him from resuming his career in the colony. During the war he worked for the Dutch Red Cross. At war’s end he was among the first group of colonial civil servants to be dispatched to the Indies under the authority of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) to restore order. Posted to Medan on Sumatra’s East Coast he served as liaison officer with the British troops stationed there to supervise the Japanese surrender. In 1946 he was appointed head of the local administration in Banka and Billiton where he first became involved in Dutch attempts to set up a federal United States of Indonesia (see below). In 1948-1949 Vleer assumed the role of secretary at the Federal Conferences (FC) held at Bandung and then that of secretary-general of the Assembly for Federal Consultation ( Bijeenkomst voor federale overleg, BFO). In this capacity he took part in the Round Table Conference held in The Hague from August to November 1949 that finally resulted in the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949.

Work in Sumatra
In 1950 Vleer accepted a position as Commissioner for the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra with Palembang as base until growing political tensions led him to return to the Netherlands in 1956. While in Indonesia he had also taught law and sociology at universities in Jakarta and Palembang. Back in the Netherlands he played a role in setting up a new technical college (now university) in Eindhoven and ended his public career as mayor of Enschede from 1965 to 1977. He died in 1981.

Part 2.2 Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra, and the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955
Vleer’s career spanned the divide represented by the transfer of sovereignty of December 1949 and he continued working in independent Indonesia for another six years in South-Sumatra, parts of which had formed one of the federal states from September 1948. The history of these early years of the Republic is beginning to attract more research attention, but sources have been generally less available than for the preceding period. For this reason this section of Vleer’s archive (inventory nos. 203-234) has also been selected for micropublication. It includes

• incoming and outgoing correspondence, memos and reports on the general and political-social situation in South-Sumatra;
• outgoing monthly economic reports compiled by Vleer on South-Sumatra;
• confidential “economische notities” published in stencil by the Bureau for Research and Documentation of the High Commission on the economic situation in Indonesia, 1950-1955; and others