Gabriele Jancke and Claudia Ulbrich
Research on Self-Narratives in Germany and Switzerland
Edited by Claudia Ulbrich, Kaspar von Greyerz and Lorenz Heiligensetzer
Contributors include Andreas Bähr, Fabian Brändle, Lorenz Heiligensetzer, Angela Heimen, Gabriele Jancke, Gudrun Piller, Sophie Ruppel, Thomas M. Safley, Claudia Ulbrich, Kaspar von Greyerz, and Patricia Zihlmann-Märki.
Address modes such as vocatives and second-person pronouns express social roles and interpersonal relationships while their shift indexes mutations in interactants' attitudes or status. Film provides a challenging context for the translation of these socio-pragmatic features since audiovisual dialogue is supposed to imitate spontaneous interaction while at the same time creating characters' identities and advancing narration. With reference to a selection of contemporary American and British films dubbed into Italian, this contribution focuses on the specific issue of transitions from formal to informal address in the target texts. English and Italian differ markedly in this respect, with the tu-Lei pronominal contrast in Italian forcibly making explicit what may be left implicit or undefined in English. It is shown that, far from simply deriving from linguistic features of the source text or conventions of the target community, the address strategies in translated texts may be motivated by attitudinal and diegetic changes expressed contextually and paralinguistically in the original audiovisual texts. Hence, pronoun shifts are shown to code a change in characters' mutual positioning linguistically, and to anticipate or amplify the emotional intensity of key narrative moments. However, they can also result from dubbing translators' creative interpretation of the developing action and interpersonal dynamics.
Veronica Bonsignori, Silvia Bruti and Silvia Masi
Greetings, leave-takings and good wishes are usually regarded as variously 'complex' expressions because of the array of socio-pragmatic meanings that are associated with them (cf. Coulmas 1979) and consequently represent an area of potential difficulty in translation. The present work builds on the premises of previous research (Bonsignori, Bruti & Masi 2011) and describes translating trends for greetings and leave-takings in film language and in translation. Relevant issues in translating trends especially concern the asymmetry of 'good forms', the coherence of register across turns and between characters, along with peculiar choices pertaining to idiolect and connoted slang varieties. Leave-takings, in particular, include 'formulae' with different degrees of 'fixity' as well as a vast range of expressions of phatic communion, which are here distinguished into two subsets. The present analysis is based on a corpus of fifteen recent films, where language varies diatopically, diachronically and diastratically. A pilot reference corpus containing five original Italian films is exploited to investigate the phenomena at issue in original (i.e. not translated) Italian film dialogue.
This contribution focuses on the problem of translating heterolingualism in audiovisual translation (AVT). At first sight, AVT seems to offer the perfect opportunity to maintain the use of different languages in a film. In the subtitled versions, the other languages always remain present since the original soundtrack is not replaced and translations are rendered in the subtitles, whereas in dubbed versions the other languages can be rendered by the dubbing actor or narrator in the foreign language and also be translated in subtitles. Thus, viewers who can distinguish between foreign languages and who are not distracted from listening by reading the subtitles can easily notice code switching. However, as this case study shows, it is not as simple as that. Depending on the meaning and the relevance of heterolingualism in the context on the one hand, and the target audience's views on foreign languages and cultures on the other, the translators/adaptors of the Spanish subtitling and dubbing of the Belgian (Dutch spoken) film De zaak Alzheimer / La memoria del asesino resorted to different strategies to overcome the problem. The aim of this case study is to identify the different functions that heterolingualism performs in the film and to summarise the translation strategies that were used to maintain (or to neutralise) heterolingualism. In fact, this film is no exception. Given the linguistic situation of Belgium, heterolingualism is a feature of many of its film productions.
Edited by Aline Remael, Pilar Orero and Mary Carroll
Catalina Jiménez and Claudia Seibel
This contribution presents the results of the TRACCE Project, whose objective has been to design the structure of an accessible audiovisual product database. In an initial step, over 300 films with audio description in Spanish were collected, stored and inventoried. This corpus was complemented by a further 50 films in English, French and German. Throughout the project, the audio-description scripts constituted the main object of study, since they form the basis of the semantic tagging and are therefore the source of the knowledge base. Subsequently, a conceptual framework underlying the semantic tagging system was developed, which operated on three distinct levels: (1) narratology, (2) cinematography and (3) grammar. This allowed us to establish comparisons and patterns of equivalence between the three levels. The three-tier tagging system was later integrated into a single software application known as Taggetti. In the first two phases of the project, two independent applications were designed for tagging Narration (Taggetti 1.4.) and Image (Taggetti Imagen 1.4.). In a final stage, these were fused into the definitive software application combining the three tagged dimensions: (1) Narration, (2) Image and (3) Grammar.