Das Frankfurter Neue Testament (FNT) ist die erste deutsche Übersetzung der Bibel, die sich konsequent am Griechischen des 1. Jahrhunderts orientiert, ohne Rücksicht auf kirchlich-konfessionelle Hörgewohnheiten zu nehmen. Das FNT vereint philologische Präzision mit theologischer Fachkompetenz. Möglichst nah am Original erschließt diese Übersetzung neue Sichtweisen auf scheinbar Vertrautes und führt so zu einem faszinierenden Leseerlebnis.
The article suggests that the story of the contest on Mount Carmel (1 Kgs 18:19–40) is a complete literary unit that was written by a single author in the early Persian period and inserted into the deuteronomistic story-cycle of Elijah. The story is entirely legendary and reflects the polemic of a devotee of YHWH against the contemporaneous spread of the Phoenician cult and culture. The attachment of the story to Mount Carmel may reflect the occasion of the establishment of a Tyrian/Sidonian temple on one of the mountain’s peaks, but this hypothesis cannot be verified. The story conveys a clear religious message of the absolute power of YHWH and the worthlessness of all other gods – in particular the Phoenician God Ba‘al – and of the fallacy of the belief in his divine power.
The figure of Joab, King David’s general, has been thoroughly researched, but only as far as 2 Sam 2–20 and 1 Kgs 1–2 are concerned, i.e. the texts which contain historically reliable material about him. But “legends” have also been tied to Joab. Thus he is said to have carried out a census on David’s orders and at the same time formulated the objections against it; this double role is attributed to him for narrative reasons (2 Sam 24 // 1 Chr 21). This report reflects Persian period conditions. According to the Chronicler he is said to have played a decisive role in the conquest of Jerusalem (1 Chr 11); with this information the Chronicler provides the answer to a question which lies behind 2 Sam 5:8 and remains unanswered there. Joab also proves to be a noble warrior without fault and blame, who treats David respectfully, which he does not in 2 Sam. Furthermore he contributes to the financing of the temple (1 Chr 26:28) and advocates the theology on which the provision of Lev 4:3 is based (1 Chr 21:3). Finally Joab plays the decisive role in a war against the Edomites (I Kgs 11; cf. Ps 60:1f.), which reflects also events at the time of the Diadoches. The legendary Joab is a many-sided character.
A hundred years ago, in 1919–1922, the groundbreaking works on form-criticism appeared, mainly independent of each other. This means that it is time for a retrospect and an evaluation. The article starts with the forerunners, especially Johann Gottlieb Herder and Hermann Gunkel, but also some others. Then main paragraphs are devoted to each of the five protagonists: Martin Dibelius, Karl Ludwig Schmidt, Rudolph Bultmann, Martin Albertz and Georg Bertram. Their foundational form-critical studies are discussed and contextualized within their lives and their literary output. In the case of Dibelius, more attention than usual is given to the important differences between the first (1919) and the second edition (1933) of his “Formgeschichte” that was decisive for creating the terminology. The little known political options that Bertram favored are criticized. The final section draws some lines from the early 20th century to the present days.