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This article offers an analysis of the role of Muslim imams in family counselling in Norway based on a survey (N = 35) and in-depth interviews (N = 10) with imams. There has till now been little knowledge about these issues. We find that family counselling is an important part of the work that imams do and they have a high degree of awareness about their potential role as counsellors, but they are also wary of their clients’ high expectations and they stress the limitations of their own authority. One of the important issues the imams face in counselling has to do with the challenging role of Muslim husbands and the expectations husbands sometimes face.

In: Journal of Muslims in Europe


The concept of community policing was adopted by the Malawi government as a vehicle to facilitate police and the public engagement in fighting crimes. Considering that community policing has existed for over a decade in Malawi, this study was carried out to holistically uncover challenges associated with public involvement in community policing activities with the purpose to provide empirically backed strategies for the efficient implementation of the concept.

The study employed a case study approach. Purposive sampling was used on one hand to select the research site – Central Regions of Malawi and to select the police officers working as Community Policing Coordinators and members of the communities working in Community Police Forums. Quota sampling was used to select police officers and members of the community from each district. Finally, convenient sampling was used to select police officers and members within the quotas of each district. Focus group discussions were conducted with 16 Community Police Forums; interviews were conducted with 16 Community Policing Coordinators; a questionnaire was used to collect data from 144 community members and 200 police officers.

Results show that the community members are not satisfied with police officers in the way they implement the community policing because the police do not offer the public enough protection from criminals and that the police mostly treat the community badly. The community members were involved in the implementation of the community policing mainly because of worsening crimes in the community, personal fear of the crimes, need to be recognised by the police and the desire to benefit from the rewards from Non-Governmental Organisations in form of food. The factors that challenged the implementation of community policing include lack of knowledge on community policing on the part of police officers; lack of recognition of community policing; corrupt practices; lack of confidentiality; poor working relationship; and lack of resources.

The concept of community policing continues to receive unprecedented attention in police reforms. Much as there is evidence of growing literature on this concept, little is known in Malawi where this study was conducted. In light of this, the study provides valuable literature which might be necessary for global academics and particularly in community policing in Malawi with practical implications on re-designing and continued implementation of community policing in Malawi and perhaps other developing countries.

In: African and Asian Studies
Author: Hussein M. Azmy


Despite the prominent role that the Islamic faith plays in shaping the social and regulatory aspects of Arab countries and the constitutional recognition of Islamic law (Sharīʿah) as a main source of legislation in most of these countries, judicial precedents regarding Islamic finance contracts remain scarce in the Arab world. This article sheds light on the judicial treatment of the validity and characterisation of Islamic finance contracts. It examines the economic and regulatory backgrounds of the Islamic finance industry in Egypt, Kuwait, and Oman. This examination provides a necessary prelude to the article’s discussion of the Islamic finance contract from jurisprudential and regulatory standpoints. It also provides a foundation for the analysis of noteworthy judicial precedents on the validity and characterisation of the Islamic finance contract. Following such analysis, this article makes recommendations to enhance the regulatory and judicial appreciation for the distinctiveness of Islamic finance.