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Majid Davoody Beni

The paper aims to evaluate the success of two different philosophical interpretations of prediction error minimisation theory in dissolving a notorious problem of philosophy, i.e., the New Evil Demon Problem (ned). In this paper, I argue that the inferentialist interpretation could not dissolve the strong form of ned. Alternatively, the embodied construaldissolves ned. However, in doing so, i.e., in dispensing with the cognitive judgment, the embodied construal might also eliminate some basic concepts of epistemology.

Charles Raff

The current standard interpretation of Moore’s proof assumes he offers a solution to Kant’s famously posed problem of an external world, which Moore quotes at the start of his 1939 lecture “Proof of an External World.” As a solution to Kant’s problem, Moore’s proof would fail utterly. A second received interpretation imputes an aim of refuting metaphysical idealism that Moore’s proof does not at all achieve. This study departs from received interpretations to credit the aim Moore announced for the proof Moore performed in his 1939 lecture. Moore’s aim was to impose a counter-example to a stated presupposition of Kant’s problem of an external world. Moore’s lecture nevertheless neither endorses a replacement for Kant’s problem nor acknowledges that an immediate implication of achieving his announced aim would subvert Kant’s famously posed problem of an external world.

Alexander Simon and Steven C. Clark


Activists often utilize ballot measures to protect wildlife. However, state executive branches may employ a variety of means to subvert direct democracy. We examine some of these tactics via a case study of two nearly identical ballot initiatives that were intended to outlaw the aerial killing of wolves in Alaska. In the first case, the language that appeared on the ballot was created by an executive branch sympathetic to the measure. In the second case, the ballot language was created by an executive branch opposed to the measure. In the first case, the ballot language accurately communicated the intent of the initiative and it passed. In the second case, it did not communicate the intent of the initiative or pass. Moreover, in the second case, the Palin administration utilized public funds to persuade voters not to support the initiative.

Mänette Monroe, James D. Whitworth, Tracy Wharton and Joanne Turner


This study evaluated the use of an 8-week Equine Assisted Activities and Therapy (EAAT) program for trauma-impacted veterans. There were 48 participants. EAAT programs have emerged as one alternative intervention for veterans who may have declined or dropped out of more traditional research-supported approaches. The EAAT program examined here incorporates CPT techniques in conjunction with guided interactions with horses. Program completers reported decreased PTSD symptoms and reduced signs of depression. Participants’ assessment of their quality of life improved significantly after the EAAT program. They also described a significantly increased ability to depend on others when needing help that was accompanied with a significant sense of relationship anxiety. The results provide evidence that EAAT may be effective for veterans with trauma-related mood, anxiety, and functioning difficulties. They also show that trauma-impacted veterans are more willing to initiate and continue to participate in EAAT programs in contrast to traditional trauma interventions.

Nicole Pearce and Vickie Lake


Previous studies have shown teaching children empathy for nonhuman animals through lessons and story books can transfer to humans. Following the National Institutes of Health’s call for further research exploring the contributions of human-animal interactions to development, the purpose of the present qualitative research study was to explore first graders’ social and emotional development through situated learning experiences with a nonhuman animal in a classroom. The classroom companion animal became a catalyst for integrating humane education into academic content areas through situated learning experiences promoting social and emotional development. The findings indicate the first graders’ social and emotional skills practiced with the classroom companion animal became observable when children were interacting with each other.

Mathias Elrød Madsen and Marie Leth-Espensen


Scholars and activists opposing the killing of nonhuman animals have long shared the assumption that the invisibility of the animals killed for meat is one of the most significant factors when it comes to explaining how meat eating is perpetuated. However, a recent tendency towards a new visibility of these animals and their physical transformation into meat fundamentally challenges this assumption. The present paper addresses this discrepancy by examining an example of what has been described as “New Carnivorism” in the form of a Danish TV show called Kill Your Favorite Dish. The paper finds that in the show, visibility is in fact instrumental in justifying meat eating, as it is constitutive of a complex narrative about awareness, authenticity, pleasure, and respect. This points to a need for more nuanced understandings of how invisibility and visibility of nonhuman animals are at work in enabling the continuance of meat eating.

Zeynep B. Ugur


Theoretically, the teachings of Islam can promote environmentally conscious behavior. As the only Muslim majority country to take part in the International Social Science Survey (ISSP), we study indicators of environmental consciousness in Turkey using ISSP 2010. Among all ISSP 2010 participating countries, a cross-country comparison does not provide evidence to support the argument that Islamic religiosity promotes environmental consciousness. In an analysis of individual level data, our overall findings failed to discover a statistically significant relationship between religiosity and environmental consciousness. Yet, this gap between the teachings of Islam and practices of Muslims may be identified as an unexploited potential to foster environmental consciousness in Turkey through a well-articulated religious education that brings together the book of scripture and the book of nature.

Ampere A. Tseng


The impact of Buddhist vegetarianism views on the equivalent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE s) is evaluated. The vegetarianism views from three major Buddhist schools in China are first presented, since different views on vegetarianism can dictate the assessment of the equivalent of GHGE reduction. The populations of Chinese Buddhists in these three Buddhist schools are then estimated. A correlation formula is used to evaluate the equivalent GHGE reductions attributed to the vegan and vegetarian populations in the Chinese Buddhists from 2017 to 2027. The reduction results enable us to conclude that Chinese Buddhists with vegan or vegetarian diets account for the equivalent GHGE reduction of 54.560 MtCO2e in 2017 and 60.927 MtCO2e in 2027 with an average annual growth rate of 1.11 %. The reductions of 54.560 and 60.927 MtCO2e equal to 11.66 % and 13.02 % of the total GHGE s from the United Kingdom in 2016, respectively.

Cross-Cultural Comparisons between the Mughal Tomb Garden of Taj Mahal in Agra (India) and the Dry Landscape Garden of the Ryoan-Ji Zen Monastery in Kyoto (Japan)

An Analysis of Cultural and Religious Layers of Meaning in Two Cases of Classical Garden Landscape Architecture

Lourens Minnema


Gardens have always meant a lot to people. Gardens are as much about nature as they are about culture. The extent to which gardens carry and embody both similar and different layers of meaning will be demonstrated by comparing two classical gardens, the Taj Mahal tomb garden of the Mughal rulers in Agra, India, and the Ryoan-ji dry landscape garden of the Zen monks in Kyoto, Japan. Parallels will be drawn by offering a (diachronic) analysis of the historical accumulation of layers of meaning associated with each one of these two gardens, and (synchronic) structural comparisons will be drawn by raising two thematic issues in particular, the inside-outside relationship and the nature-culture relationship. The roles that Islam and Zen Buddhism play in the religious meaning making of these two classical gardens turn out to be strikingly similar, in that they confirm rather than transform other layers of cultural meaning.