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Michael Bányai

Abstract

Die Frage nach der chronologischen Position von Amenmesse innerhalb der späten 19. Dynastie ist ungeachtet aller Versuche einer Klärung weiterhin eine stark debattierte Angelegenheit geblieben. Man konnte von bisher zwei grundsätzlichen Lösungsansätzen Amenmesse zu unterbringen, sprechen. Der vorliegende Artikel möchte, angesichts der vom Autor festgestellten Schwierigkeiten der bisherigen Versuche, die Regierungszeit von Amenmesse chronologisch zu unterbringen, einer weiteren, dritten Alternative, nachgehen. Diese zieht in Betracht—in Übereinstimmung mit der Aussage der Historien von Manetho—die Möglichkeit eines Aufstands von Amenmesse während der späteren Regierungszeit Merenptahs. Ebenso wird hier zum ersten Mal die Aussage der Elephantine Stele des Sethnacht sowie von pHarris I auf diese Periode bezogen.

Jean-Christophe Antoine

Abstract

An analysis of P. Geneva D191, P. BM EA 75019+10302, P. Penn 49.11, and P. Turin 2097+2105 leads to a new interpretation on the political events at Thebes during the Renaissance Era. Ramesses XI played a major role in the restoration of order with the help of Libyan troops. He decreed the Renaissance Era with the will of restoring control in the South. Nesamun, at the death of his brother Amenhotep, was compelled to return to his former position of second prophet of Amun while that of first prophet was left vacant for at least two years. After year 4 or 5 of the Renaissance Era, Piankh, who arrived at Thebes with the king, progressively installed a system of power which will prevail throughout the 21st Dynasty. In this new structure a military family of probable Libyan background occupied all the Theban secular and religious functions while maintaining a fictitious allegiance to the northern king.

Laura Peirce

Abstract

Research to date on name rings, which form a singular component of topographical lists, has primarily focused on the toponyms enclosed in the rings and their subsequent relevance to military campaigns. This article aims to explore another valuable facet of this phenomenon. It details the results of an investigation into the development of the iconography of the personages attached to these name rings during the Eighteenth Dynasty and early Nineteenth Dynasty on Egyptian royal monuments. Clear trends were discernible, from accoutrements to coiffures, that may be able to assist in the dating of royal monuments within sacred spaces.

Uroš Matić

Abstract

The process of epistemological de-colonization of the historiography and archaeology of ancient Egypt and Nubia has begun unfolding only in the last two decades. It is still set in the context of descriptive disciplinary history with little reflection on and criticism of background theories and methods. As a consequence, some of the old approaches and concepts live on in the discipline. Utilizing the concepts of “thought collective” and “thought style” (sensu Ludwik Fleck) this paper analyzes previous works on ancient Egypt and Nubia written in the colonial discourse. Three key ideas run like threads through these works: 1. scientific racism, 2. socio-cultural evolution, and 3. colonial and imperial discourse. In this paper the emphasis will be put on scientific racism, its development, and its remnants in the archaeology and historiography of Egypt and Nubia.

Kate Liszka

Abstract

Aashyet’s sarcophagus (JE 47267) offers a unique case for understanding how the intersection of a person’s identities, such as ethnicity, gender, age, or religion, is portrayed on a funerary object within the historic and religious circumstances of a specific context. Aashyet’s sarcophagus portrays her as a wealthy, elite priestess, and the head-of-household, while being a Nubian who celebrated her non-Egyptian origins. The sarcophagus’s archaeological context also demonstrates the importance of Priestesses of Hathor within Montuhotep II’s funerary complex at Deir el-Bahri for the legitimation of his kingship before he unified Egypt, late in his reign.

Juan Carlos Moreno García

Abstract

The term “Libyan” encompasses, in fact, a variety of peoples and lifestyles living not only in the regions west of the Nile Valley, but also inside Egypt itself, particularly in Middle Egypt and the Western Delta. This situation is reminiscent of the use of other “ethnic” labels, such as “Nubian,” heavily connoted with notions such as ethnic homogeneity, separation of populations across borders, and opposed lifestyles. In fact, economic complementarity and collaboration explain why Nubians and Libyans crossed the borders of Egypt and settled in the land of the pharaohs, to the point that their presence was especially relevant in some periods and regions during the late 3rd and early 2nd millennium BCE. Pastoralism was just but one of their economic pillars, as trading activities, gathering, supply of desert goods (including resins, minerals, and vegetal oils) and hunting also played an important role, at least for some groups or specialized segments of a particular social group. While Egyptian sources emphasize conflict and marked identities, particularly when considering “rights of use” over a given area, collaboration was also crucial and beneficial for both parts. Finally, the increasing evidence about trade routes used by Libyans points to alternative networks of circulation of goods that help explain episodes of warfare between Egypt and Libyan populations for their control.

Danielle Candelora

Abstract

This paper presents a historiographical critique of Hyksos scholarship and the impact of Imperialism and Orientalism on the foundations of such studies. I trace the creation and maintenance of the misconception of the Hyksos as a race through the scholarship, examining the context and influences behind the research, and discuss the appeal of new scientific techniques for the question of Hyksos origins.

Stuart Tyson Smith

Abstract

The construction of ethnic self and other played a central role in ancient Egyptian ideology as well as at a more quotidian level. Ethnic groups are usually seen as self-defined, distinctive entities, often corresponding neatly to political or cultural units, but in reality, expressions of ethnic identity are mutable and socially contingent. Adopting a multi-scalar approach informed by practice theory, this paper examines ancient Egyptian constructions of ethnicity, taking into account ideological and elite expressions of ethnic identity from art and texts and everyday practices revealed by archaeology. A carefully contextualized analysis shows how pejorative constructions of an ethnic other by the state contrast with more positive interactions and patterns of mutual influence at a more individual level.

Juan Carlos Moreno García

Abstract

The study of ethnicity in the ancient world has known a complete renewal in recent times, at several levels, from the themes studied to the perspectives of analysis and the models elaborated by archaeologists, anthropologists, sociologists and historians. Far from traditional approaches more interested in detecting and characterizing particular ethnic groups (“Libyans,” “Medjay”) and social organizations (“tribe,” “clan”, etc.), in identifying them in the archaeological record through specific markers (pottery, ornaments, weapons, etc.) and, subsequently, in studying their patterns of interaction with other social groups (domination, acculturation, assimilation, resistance, centre periphery), recent research follows different paths. To sum up, a deeper understanding of ethnicity in ancient Egypt cannot but benefit from a close dialogue with other disciplines and is to enrich current debates in archaeology, anthropology, and ancient history.