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Between Criminalization and Protection

The Italian Way of Dealing with Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking within the European and International Context

Vincenzo Militello and Alessandro Spena


This double issue is focused on migrant smuggling and human trafficking. Both subjects are mainly treated from an Italian perspective; however, since these crimes have a generally transnational character, the analysis also takes international (UN) and supranational (EU) measures into account. Moreover, in both parts, the legal perspective is supplemented by the phenomenological/criminological one (based on both media reports and judicial case-studies), so as to grasp the practical aspects emerging from the different ways in which migrant smuggling and human trafficking are de facto committed: in particular, the links between these two and other crimes are underscored, as well as the involvement of criminal organizations in their perpetration. Finally, both parts are driven by a human rights-oriented approach, which gives relevance to dignity of persons as a fundamental meta-value of our legal systems.

Santiago Wortman Jofre


The present work analyses the case of Spain in relation to Compliance Management Systems and Corporate Criminal Liability. It studies the way criminal justice understands and uses Compliance Management Systems to target corporate criminality. Moreover, it aims to deconstruct the way Compliance Management Systems are implemented in different corporations. To that end, I conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with Compliance Officers and performed content analysis on judicial documents. While not being able to generalise or give definite conclusions, the results showed a misconnection between the aim of criminal law provisions and the profit-driven objectives of corporations. Furthermore, results unveiled the powerful motivation of requirements. Companies sought to implement Compliance Management Systems to access new markets, better supplies and insurance fee discounts. Rather than the threat of punishment the analysis indicated a stronger effect through the positive stimuli of requiring a Compliance Management System for a benefit. The study also showed a fear for the reputational consequences of being subjected to a criminal procedure, thus indicating a better predisposition to solve offences through alternative conflict resolution methods. The lack of a clear message from the criminal justice reduced the deterrent effect of punishment. This lack of clear standards may have fostered social disorganisation within the environment of corporations, thus constituting fertile ground for corporate crimes.

Michał Rynkowski


Religious courts have for centuries been part of the European legal landscape. Almost all churches and religious communities have their own judicial systems, often composed of courts or tribunals ordered hierarchically. The aim of this paper is to present cases from the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, in which a religious court was involved at the stage of domestic proceedings. The twelve cases in question originate from a number of European States, from Italy to Finland and from the UK to Turkey—and in one particular case, Israel. The applicants belonged to many denominations, predominantly Christian. The Court of Human Rights (and before that, the Commission of Human Rights) has been concerned, in the main, with religious courts in terms of compliance with the requirement for a fair hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal under Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. The Court has come to various conclusions—for example, it accepted that courts of the Church of England comply with the requirement, it questioned whether the cathedral chapter of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland did so, and it indirectly criticized proceedings before the Roman Rota of the Catholic Church. The most recent judgment from September 2017, Nagy v. Hungary, and in particular many associated dissenting opinions, demonstrate that the matter is worthy of study, particularly in the contemporary context of religious freedom. Nevertheless, the cases are so different that it is difficult to discern a coherent line of jurisprudence, and the Court itself hardly ever refers to its own previous judgments in this field.

Ahmed Salisu Garba


The re-enactment of religious preaching board laws to regulate religious preaching in some states of Northern Nigeria generated debates between Government on the one hand and religious/human rights groups on the other. This research examines the Preaching Board Laws of Kano, Borno and Kaduna States in Northern Nigeria through the prism of the Nigerian Constitution and other democratic norms that relate to the right to freedom of religion in all democratic orders. It applies argumentative methodology to raise and analyse the following questions: how reasonable and justifiable are these religious preaching board laws in a democratic Nigeria?; what gave rise to the enactment of these laws in the states under study?; what judicial review mechanism would be employed to determine their reasonableness and justifiability in a democracy?; how do they accord with the freedom of religion clause in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria? The research establishes that some of the provisions of these laws are inconsistent with the provisions of the Nigerian Constitution and, by extension, international freedom of religion norms operating in all democratic orders. Second, Nigerian courts have not developed suitable balancing mechanisms for resolving conflicts between the right of the state to regulate and citizens’ right to freedom of religion otherwise called the two competing rights, in the light of which the research calls for the amendment of the laws to accord with the provisions of the Constitution and international freedom of religion norms acceptable in all democracies. The paper further recommends a harmonised proportionality test or judicial standard of review based on Nigeria’s religion-state relations and local experience for the use of courts, legislators and administrative agents coming face to face with this type of conflict in their official capacity.

Frank Cranmer


The interactions between religious belief and employment law touch on a wide variety of issues, ranging from basic questions about the definitions of ‘religion’ and ‘belief’—and, indeed, of ‘employment’—to issues such as time off for religious observance, religious dress in the workplace and the extent to which an employer can impose its religious values on its workforce. This monograph looks at the major issues of religion in relation to employment law in the United Kingdom, primarily by reference to the recent case-law.

Helge Årsheim and Pamela Slotte


This article sets out to explore the extent to which developments currently taking place at the interface between law and religion in domestic, regional and international law can be conceptualized as instances of larger, multidimensional processes of juridification. We rely on an expansive notion of juridification, departing from the more narrow sense of juridificiation as the gradually increasing “colonization of the lifeworld” proposed by Jürgen Habermas in his Theory of Communicative Action (1987; Vol. 2, Beacon Press). More specifically, the article adapts the multidimensional notion of juridification outlined by Anders Molander and Lars Christian Blichner in their article ‘Mapping Juridification’ (2008; 14 European Law Journal 36), and develops it into a more context-specific notion of juridification that is attendant to the specific nature of religion as a subject matter for law.

Laura Salvadego


This study analyzes counter-smuggling and counter-trafficking operations carried out in the Mediterranean, mainly focusing on the EU operations Sophia and Themis. The purpose is to assess a number of issues linked with naval operations from a human rights perspective. These issues include the applicable law, the exercise of criminal jurisdiction over smugglers and traffickers, national strategies of coastal States as regards migration control policy and, finally, international responsibility for human rights violations perpetrated in connection with these operations. Although the study is primarily aimed at both Ph.D students and legal scholars specialized in the field, it also seeks to provide insights that may be of guidance to NGOs, legal practitioners and legislators within the EU and its Member States.

Neil Boister


This article explores how transnational criminal law is used as a tool to create a legal space within the state where the fugitive resides or is acting, in order in effect to re-set the border inside that jurisdiction and to make it possible, by proxy, to enforce another state’s law. It argues that transnational criminal law is used to establish a kind of fictional transnational legal space, created by changing domestic laws and practices of both the state exercising its jurisdiction and the state in which that jurisdiction is being exercised, so that restrictions on cooperative action are minimalized. It explores how that space is created and how it shapes the structure of transnational criminal law through the building of normative structures—both legal and administrative—to suppress the activities of alleged criminals in this space. But its specific focus is on how this purely functional relationship impacts on individuals caught within that space.