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Paintings, Drawings and Prints up to the Nineteenth Century
Authors: Sam Segal and Klara Alen
This richly illustrated book provides an overview of all known Dutch and Flemish artists up to the nineteenth century who painted or drew flower pieces, or else made prints of them. Unlike many mainstream art historical studies, the book takes a truly comprehensive approach, including cases where only a single example is known or even if nothing of the artist’s other work appears to have survived. Containing highly instructive lists identifying the names of flowers, as well as insects and other animals, the book also discusses the earliest depictions of flower still life and the distinctive characteristics behind the development of floral arrangements in different periods, including the variation of the flowers, the variety of techniques used by artists, as well as an exploration of the symbolism behind the numerous plant and animal species this form of art portrays.

Composed in Dutch, the text was translated into English by Judith Deitch and edited by Philip Kelleway.

Publication of this book was made possible thanks to generous support of:
• Dr. med. Bettina Leysen
• Rose-Marie and Eijk van Otterloo and the Center for Netherlandish Art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

With additional support of the M.A.O.C. Gravin van Bylandt Stichting.
In Crocologia – A Detailed Study of Saffron, the King of Plants, Sally Francis and Maria Teresa Ramandi present the first translation into English of Johann Ferdinand Hertodt’s seminal 1671 work Crocologia, a book uniquely devoted to the medical uses of saffron. Hertodt discusses saffron’s origin, related species, cultivation, selection, properties and lists all its pharmaceutical preparations. Hertodt then journeys through diseases of the human body, presenting saffron-containing formulae for their treatment.

The two authors complement the translation with a biography of Hertodt, and detail saffron’s botany, current production, uses, its changing reputation as a drug, and review findings from new medical research. There is a full Glossary, and translation of a contemporary approbation of Crocologia by Hertodt’s rival, Wenzel Maximilian Ardensbach.

Abstract

Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides (Mol.) Johnst.) and Guaitecas cypress (Pilgerodendron uviferum (Don) Florin) are two of the three closely-related species of conifers in the Cupressaceae that are endemic to southern Chile and Argentina. Both are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES). The presence or absence of nodular (conspicuously pitted) end walls in the parenchyma cells provide good diagnostic characters to separate the two species wood anatomically, but the latter is sometimes difficult to distinguish. Therefore, a collaborative project was designed to study the chemical-molecular expression of these species by analyzing the heartwood using DART TOFMS (Direct Analysis in Real-Time (DART) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS). This study compares the anatomical features of heartwood for both species and demonstrates that anatomy in conjunction with chemistry can separate them. DART TOFMS analysis combined with PCA was able to unequivocally determine taxonomic source with a statistical certainty of 99%. The mass spectra results obtained from heartwood demonstrated that identification is feasible after a few seconds, using a very small sample. DART TOFMS is a robust tool for reliable species identification and is useful to identify the taxonomic source of finished products or timber that are suspected of being illegally harvested.

In: IAWA Journal

Low Zn in staple food grains like rice is closely related to large scale Zn malnutrition in many countries of the World. Zinc biofortification of rice grains by some cost effective agronomic method is important for low income farmers. To explore the possibility of enhancing the bioavailability of Zn in rice grains besides higher yields of two cultivars, the combinations of varying Zn fertilizer doses with or without inoculation of rhizobacteria consortium under split plot design set up were evaluated in two years field trials. Microbial inoculation + 5 kg Zn ha-1 to I year rice crop resulted in the highest number of effective tillers, grain yields, Zn concentration and uptake in grains and straw and total Zn uptake in both years. Grain yield of rice during two years increased by 19.7-27.9 and 17.1-20.4 percent over control under treatments receiving microbial inoculation + 5 kg Zn ha-1 to I year rice and 5 kg Zn ha-1 alone to I year rice crop, respectively. The highest concentration of Zn (10.9-19.1 mg kg-1) and the lowest concentration of phytic acid (18.5-25.3 g kg-1) in dehulled rice grains were recorded with soil application of 5 kg Zn ha-1; however, the values were at par with those observed under microbial inoculation + 5 kg Zn ha-1 (12.0-17.0 mg Zn kg-1 and 19.2-26.9 g phytic acid kg-1). The percent utilization of soil applied Zn increased with microbial inoculation in both the years and it was relatively higher in NDR 359 as compared to PD 16.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Under stress environment of oily sludge, plants develop oxidative stress which effect nutrients uptake, activity of oxidative defence enzymes, cause ion imbalance and toxicity in plants. The present study was designed to develop a combination of bacterial consortium alone and with fertilizers that can help to improve alfalfa growth and plant defence system under stress environment of oily sludge contamination soils. For this study consortium was prepared from Bacillus cereus (Acc KR232400), Bacillus altitudinis (Acc KF859970), Comamonas (Acc KF859971) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Acc KF859973) and was inoculated with fertilizer to oily sludge contaminated soils. A pot experiment was conducted using complete randomized design with three replicates. The plants were harvested at 21 d for estimation of protein, proline and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). The protein, SOD and POD contents in alfalfa were higher in oily sludge than soil without consortium, ammonium nitrate and diamamoiun phosphate. Consortium suppressed the oxidative stress of sludge treated plants. The inoculation of bacterial consortium enhanced the uptake of Ca, Mg, K and Na. The uptake of Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Cu and Zn increased significantly with consortium+fertilizer the availability of nutrients in soil with 30% and 60% of oily. Cd content was greater in root than leaves of alfalfa. The bacterial consortium helped to enhance plant growth and plant anti-oxidant enzymes system. The consortium with fertilizer is the best suitable combination for alfalfa that can improve the oxidative enzyme system of alfalfa and increases its growth and development.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Lateral organs are formed in plants by post embryonic developmental programs. Leaves, and flowers differentiate from the shoot apical meristem and lateral roots from the primary root pericycle meristem. Adventitious roots are roots formed from non-root lateral meristematic tissues, mostly the cambium, in many cases in response to stress signals. The ability of plants to regenerate adventitious roots is fundamental for selection and breading programs which are based on vegetative propagation of elite clones. Thus, recalcitrant plants, losing their rooting capability, may form a genuine commercial barrier in agricultural and forestry improvement programs. Some cellular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation have been revealed, but much is yet to be clarified. The plant primary cell wall is a dynamic organ that can change its form, and perceive and relay molecular signals inward and outward during certain stages of development in particular cells. Therefore, before the secondary cell wall is deposited and plants become the wood from which walls and furniture are built, and the fibers from which cloths are woven, primary cell walls actively participate in plant cell differentiation and developmental programs. While auxin is a major regulator, cell walls are important in regulating coherent formative cell division and synchronized polar elongation of cell lineages that are necessary for lateral organ induction and formation, and collaborative cell functioning. Nevertheless, little is known of how cell wall changes are molecularly sensed and translated to intracellular signals during differentiation of adventitious roots. Here we summarize recent data linking, directly or indirectly, cell wall events to auxin signaling and to lateral or adventitious root induction and formation.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences
Authors: Chen Lin and Margret Sauter

Drought and flooding are environmental extremes and major threats to crop production. Water uptake is achieved by plant roots which have to explore new soil spaces to alleviate water deficit during drought or to cope with water excess during flooding. Adaptation of the root system architecture helps plants cope with such extreme conditions and is crucial for plant health and survival. While for dicot plants the well studied model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has provided insight into the genetic and molecular regulation of the root system, less information is available for monocot species, which include the agronomically important cereal crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a semi-aquatic monocot plant that develops strong tolerance to flooding. Flooding tolerance of rice is closely linked to its adaptive root system. The functional root system of rice is mainly composed of crown roots and is shifted to nodal adventitious roots during flooding which allows rice to maintain oxygen supply to the roots and to survive longer periods of partial submergence as compared with other crops. Likewise, a number of drought-tolerance traits of rice are the result of an altered root system architecture. Hence, the structure of the root system adapts to, both, flooding and drought. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms that control root system adaptation to extreme environments is a key task for scientists to accelerate the breeding efforts for stress-tolerant crops. This review summarizes recently identified genes and molecular mechanisms that regulate root system architecture in rice in response to drought and flooding.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences
In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences

Maturation-related decline of adventitious root formation is one of the major factors affecting adventitious rooting in forest tree species. We demonstrate that inhibition of polar auxin transport promoted cambium and xylem differentiation in rooting-competent hypocotyl cuttings from Pinus radiata under conditions of adventitious root formation. Treatments with bioactive gibberellins inhibited rooting while at the same time inducing both the differentiation of a continuous ring of cambium and xylem formation. Treatments with inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis did not affect the rooting response. The results demonstrate that xylem parenchyma and procambial cells at the xylem poles of rooting-competent hypocotyl cuttings after excision and under conditions of adventitious root induction become adventitious root meristems or xylem, depending on the directional auxin flow. Gibberellin may interact with this pathway, inducing xylem differentiation and inhibiting rooting. We conclude that modifications of auxin flow at the rooting sites, and the priming of cambial cells to differentiate into xylem during tree ageing, may be associated with the maturation-related decline of adventitious root formation.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences