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This book addresses the negotiation of categorizations in colonial societies in Spanish America from a new vantage point: fiscality. In early modern empires (poll) taxes were a significant factor to organize and perpetuate social inequalities. By this, fiscal categorizations had very concrete effects on the daily life of the categorized, on their assets and on their labor force. They intersected with social categorizations such as gender, profession, age and what many authors have termed race or ethnicity, but which are denominated here, more accurately with a term from the sources, calidad. They were imposed by legislation from above and contested via petitions from below, the latter being a type of source scarcely analyzed until now.
Author: Boris Liebrenz
Arab Traders in their Own Words explores for the first time the largest unified corpus of merchant correspondence to have survived from the Ottoman period. The writers chosen for this first volume were mostly Christian merchants who traded within a network that connected the Syrian and Egyptian provinces and extended from Damascus in the North to Alexandria in the South with particular centers in Jerusalem and Damietta. They lived through one of the most turbulent intersections of Ottoman and European imperial history, the 1790s and early 1800s, and had to navigate their fortunes through diplomacy, culture, and commerce. Besides an edition of more than 190 letters in colloquial Arabic this volume also offers a profound introductory study.
In the past decades, the world has watched the rise of China as an economic and military power and the emergence of Chinese transnational elites. What may seem like an entirely new phenomenon marks the revival of a trend initiated at the end of the Qing. The redistribution of power, wealth and knowledge among the newly formed elites matured during the Republican period.
This volume demonstrates both the difficulty and the value of re-thinking the elites in modern China. It establishes that the study of the dynamic tensions within the elite and among elite groups in this epochal era is within reach if we are prepared to embrace forms of historical inquiry that integrate the abundant and even limitless historical resources, and to engage with the rich repertoire of digital techniques/instruments available and question our previous research paradigms.
This renewed approach brings historical research closer to an integrative data-rich history of modern China.
Which were the mechanisms by which certain groups were positioned at the margins of national narratives during the nineteenth century, either via their exclusion from these narratives of through their incorporation into them as ‘others’? By engaging with shifting ideas of exclusion and difference, the authors in this book reflect upon the paradoxical centrality of the subaltern at a time when literature was deployed as a tool for nation building. The lasting presence of the Jewish and Moorish legacy, the portrayal of gypsy characters, or the changing notions of femininity in public discourse exemplify the ways in which images of marginal ‘types’ played a central role in the configuration of the very idea of Spanishness.

¿Cuáles fueron los mecanismos mediante los que ciertos grupos fueron relegados a los márgenes del relato nacional durante el siglo XIX, bien a través de su exclusión de dichos relatos, bien a través de su incorporación a ellos como "otros"? A través del análisis de las ideas de exclusión y diferencia, los autores de este libro reflexionan sobre la paradójica centralidad de lo marginal en una época en la que la literatura fue una herramienta fundamental para la construcción de la nación. La pervivencia del legado judío y morisco, la representación de personajes gitanos o las distintas nociones de feminidad presentes en el discurso público ejemplifican las formas en que las imágenes de "tipos" marginales desempeñaron un papel central en la configuración de la idea de españolidad.
This book explores the historical evolution of a Mediterranean village that radically changed its core self-sustaining activities in less than a century, from fishing for anchovies in the Ligurian Sea to rounding Cape Horn. Drawing on a vast set of unpublished archival sources, this book addresses a micro-historical subject to investigate macro-historical processes, including the technological transition from sail to steam and globalization. At the core of the book lie Camogli’s rise in the world shipping industry and the transformations that occurred in its maritime labor system; seaborne trade, maritime routes, individual careers in seafaring represent the vivid elements that contribute to the book’s dive into the nineteenth-century maritime world.