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The Evolution of the Third Source of International Law Through the Jurisprudence of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice
In General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations (1922-2018) Marija Đorđeska offers an account of the origins, theory and practical application of the general principles in the jurisprudence of the Permanent Court of International Justice and International Court of Justice between 1922 and 2018. Are general principles rules of international law? What is their relationship to custom and treaties? What are the types of general principles and where do international courts find them? This monograph answers these and other questions and offers a detailed overview of over 150 general principles identified in the jurisprudence of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the International Court of Justice.
Conventional wisdom has it that the successful functioning of the UN Security Council almost completely depends on the role played by its five permanent members and the extent to which they can agree—or avoid to fundamentally disagree—on the many issues on the Council’s agenda. But the Council also consists of ten non-permanent or elected members who represent five different regions of the world, and who, though not vested with the right of veto, play an indispensable role in Council decision-making.

This book aims to take a closer look at that role. It considers what role is foreseen for the elected members in the UN Charter, how this evolved in practice, and what “tools” they can deploy. It also considers whether there are particular “niches” for the elected members on the Security Council, such as engaging in conflict prevention, taking initiatives on rule of law issues and debating the potential effects of climate change on peace and security. Can elected members serve as agents of the international community and norm entrepreneurs? Should their position be strengthened, and if so, how? This collection was born out of a dynamic research seminar held at Leiden University, which also drew on the experiences of former elected members. This book thus offers unique insights from both practice and scholarship, and is an indispensable tool for politicians, diplomats, academics and students alike.
Human Rights Benchmarks, Practice and Appraisal
In The Right to Appeal in International Criminal Law Dražan Djukić describes appeal proceedings in international criminal law and evaluates them against human rights benchmarks. While international criminal courts and tribunals mainly comply with these benchmarks, they have fallen short in certain important areas.
Despite their importance to the legal process, appeal proceedings tend to receive limited attention. On the basis of benchmarks arising from international human rights law, Dražan Djukić systematically assesses the law and practice concerning appeal proceedings in international criminal law.
In Consensus-Based Interpretation of Regional Human Rights Treaties Francisco Pascual-Vives examines the central role played by the notion of consensus in the case law of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. As many other international courts and tribunals do, both regional human rights courts resort to this concept while undertaking an evolutive interpretation of the Rome Convention and the Pact of San José, respectively. The role exerted by the notion of consensus in this framework can be used not only to understand the evolving character of the rights and freedoms recognized by these international treaties, but also to reaffirm the international nature of these regional human rights courts.
A Consequentialist Assessment
In European Judicial Responses to Security Council Resolutions: A Consequentialist Assessment, Kushtrim Istrefi examines the multiple effects of European courts decisions as regards Security Council targeted sanctions and security detentions interfering with fundamental rights. He elaborates what type of judicial responses ensured real and practical respect for human rights for the petitioners, encouraged Security Council due process reform, clarified Security Council authorisations on security detentions, and tested the primacy and universal character of the UN Charter.
Making use of legal and non-legal instruments, Istrefi sheds some light upon what happened to, among others, petitioners, the SC due process reform agenda, and the UN Charter after such cases as Kadi, Al-Jedda, Ahmed, Al-Dulimi.
Sixth Revised Edition
This sixth, revised edition of International Institutional Law covers the most recent developments in the field. Although public international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the African Union, ASEAN, the European Union, Mercosur, NATO and OPEC have broadly divergent objectives, powers, fields of activity and numbers of member states, they also share a wide variety of institutional characteristics. Rather than being a handbook for specific organizations, the book offers a comparative analysis of the institutional law of international organizations. It includes chapters on the rules and practices concerning membership, institutional structure, decision-making, financing, legal order, supervision and sanctions, legal status and external relations. The book’s theoretical framework and extensive use of case-studies is designed to appeal to both academics and practitioners.
Creation, Evolution and Enforcement
Editors: James Summers and Alex Gough
Non-State Actors and International Obligations examines the contribution and relevance of non-state actors in the creation and implementation of international obligations. These actors have traditionally been marginalised within international law and ambiguities remain over their precise role. Nonetheless, they have become increasingly important in legal regimes as participants in their implementation and enforcement, and as potential holders of duties themselves. Chapters from academics and practitioners investigate different aspects of this relationship, including the sources of obligations, their implementation, human rights aspects, dispute settlement, responsibility and legal accountability.
A View from The Hague
International law and the Hague, the city where so many institutions of international law are established, are intimately connected. This book presents the views developed by some of the active players in the legal capital of the world on a number of the current challenges faced by international law. The starting point was a seminar held in the Peace Palace, reviewing some of the legal policy questions of today, such as the acceptance of the jurisdiction of the ICJ as a prerequisite to dispute settlement. Supplementing these articles on classical international law are essays dealing with the younger discipline of international criminal law, as practiced by the ICC and other Tribunals, offering ideas on, among other things. how to speed up the lengthy procedures of international criminal tribunals. Other contributions debate the universality of human rights and their legal protection.
Between Collective Enforcement of Human Rights and International Dispute Settlement
The Inter-State Application under the European Convention on Human Rights provides the first comprehensive monograph about the State-to-State human rights enforcement mechanism. The functions of the mechanism include also dispute settlement aspects, which are related to the compulsory jurisdiction of the Strasbourg Court. The study provides a full account of the development of the Inter-State Application under Article 33 ECHR and puts its case law in the relevant historical and institutional context. The analysis concludes with detailed reform considerations which are situated within the discussion about the role of the European Court of Human Rights. The focus lies on the possibility to address and improve systemic human rights deficits beyond the single case. The Court’s growing inter-State docket evidences the need for legal certainty.

International organizations are typically intergovernmental in nature and endowed with a bipolar institutional structure where organs of States are usually juxtaposed with the Secretariat. On these premises, in Non-Governmental Interests in Regional Organizations: The Role of Parliamentary, Socio-Economic and Territorial Institutions Elisa Tino aims at analysing the unexplored phenomenon of institutional multipolarism of regional organizations, namely the trend to establish institutions representing non-governmental interests. Particularly, illustrating their diffusion in various geographic areas, explaining rationales underlying their establishment and investigating their institutional aspects, Elisa Tino pinpoints the contribution of these institutions to the development of regional organizations both according to the functionalist approach and the constitutionalist one. Thus, she aims at providing food for thought in the study of international organizations.