Early Christians Adapting to the Roman Empire: Mutual Recognition Niko Huttunen challenges the interpretation of early Christian texts as anti-imperial documents. He presents examples of the positive relationship between early Christians and the Roman society. With the concept of “recognition” Huttunen describes a situation in which the parties can come to terms with each other without full agreement. Huttunen provides examples of non-Christian philosophers recognizing early Christians. He claims that recognition was a response to Christians who presented themselves as philosophers. Huttunen reads Romans 13 as a part of the ancient tradition of the law of the stronger. His pioneering study on early Christian soldiers uncovers the practical dimension of recognizing the empire.
The way Luke uses and interprets Scripture continues to captivate many. In his new work,
The Prophets Agree, a title inspired by James’ words at the Jerusalem Council, Aaron W. White turns over one rock that has remained untouched. Interpretation of the four quotations of the Minor Prophets in Acts frequently isolates each citation from the other. However, this full-length study of the place of the Minor Prophets in Acts asks what difference it makes to regard these four quotations as a singular contribution to Acts from a unifi ed source.
By an in-depth study of each quotation, an innovative method of intertextuality, and an eye to the overall agenda of Acts, White proves the importance of reading the Twelve Prophets in unity when it is quoted in Acts, and the integral role it plays in the redemptive-historical plotline of Acts.
Metaphor and the Portrayal of the Cause(s) of Sin and Evil in the Gospel of Matthew traces the range and significance of metaphors used in Matthew for the origin and sin and evil and their congruence with key texts of the Second Temple milieu.
While traditional theology has often sought to pinpoint a single cause of sin and evil, Matthew’s use of a spectrum of metaphors undermines theologically reductionist approaches and opens up a rich range of ways for conceiving of and talking about the cause of sin and evil. Ultimately, the use of metaphor (necessary to discussions of sin) destabilizes foundationalist theologies of sin, and any theology of sin must grapple with the inherently tensive nature of metaphorical language.
Das Frankfurter Neue Testament (FNT) ist die erste deutsche Übersetzung der Bibel, die sich konsequent am Griechischen des 1. Jahrhunderts orientiert, ohne Rücksicht auf kirchlich-konfessionelle Hörgewohnheiten zu nehmen. Das FNT vereint philologische Präzision mit theologischer Fachkompetenz. Möglichst nah am Original erschließt diese Übersetzung neue Sichtweisen auf scheinbar Vertrautes und führt so zu einem faszinierenden Leseerlebnis.
The article suggests that the story of the contest on Mount Carmel (1 Kgs 18:19–40) is a complete literary unit that was written by a single author in the early Persian period and inserted into the deuteronomistic story-cycle of Elijah. The story is entirely legendary and reflects the polemic of a devotee of YHWH against the contemporaneous spread of the Phoenician cult and culture. The attachment of the story to Mount Carmel may reflect the occasion of the establishment of a Tyrian/Sidonian temple on one of the mountain’s peaks, but this hypothesis cannot be verified. The story conveys a clear religious message of the absolute power of YHWH and the worthlessness of all other gods – in particular the Phoenician God Ba‘al – and of the fallacy of the belief in his divine power.
The figure of Joab, King David’s general, has been thoroughly researched, but only as far as 2 Sam 2–20 and 1 Kgs 1–2 are concerned, i.e. the texts which contain historically reliable material about him. But “legends” have also been tied to Joab. Thus he is said to have carried out a census on David’s orders and at the same time formulated the objections against it; this double role is attributed to him for narrative reasons (2 Sam 24 // 1 Chr 21). This report reflects Persian period conditions. According to the Chronicler he is said to have played a decisive role in the conquest of Jerusalem (1 Chr 11); with this information the Chronicler provides the answer to a question which lies behind 2 Sam 5:8 and remains unanswered there. Joab also proves to be a noble warrior without fault and blame, who treats David respectfully, which he does not in 2 Sam. Furthermore he contributes to the financing of the temple (1 Chr 26:28) and advocates the theology on which the provision of Lev 4:3 is based (1 Chr 21:3). Finally Joab plays the decisive role in a war against the Edomites (I Kgs 11; cf. Ps 60:1f.), which reflects also events at the time of the Diadoches. The legendary Joab is a many-sided character.