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„Man muss denken, wie die wenigsten und reden wie die meisten.“ Als einer der verständlichsten Denker der Philosophiegeschichte wird Arthur Schopenhauer konsequent diesem Credo gerecht. Mit seiner pessimistischen, oft misanthropischen Grundeinstellung bietet Schopenhauer dem deutschen Mainstream-Idealismus die Stirn und verfasst – nicht ohne satirisches Talent – Polemiken gegen dessen Hauptvertreter Fichte, Schelling und Hegel und setzt dort an, wo Kants Philosophie aufhört. Während es mit anderen Philosophen zeitlebens zum Zerwürfnis kommt, residiert Schopenhauer ohne größere Konfl ikte mit seinem Pudel „Butz“ in Frankfurt. Anhand von zahlreichen illustrierten Texten werden die Biografi e und das Werk Schopenhauers anschaulich dargestellt. So bietet der Comic aus der beliebten Reihe Philosophische Einstiege eine verständliche und amüsante Einführung in das Denken eines echten Klassikers der Philosophie.
Eine Untersuchung zur epistemischen Abhängigkeit
Author: Felix Bräuer
Unter welchen Bedingungen sind wir geneigt, der Aussage eines Mitmenschen zu glauben?
In den meisten Fällen sind wir gerechtfertigt, der Aussage eines Mitmenschen zu glauben, sofern wir keinen konkreten Anlass haben, an seiner Verlässlichkeit zu zweifeln. Dies gilt jedoch nicht, wenn sehr hohe praktische Risiken mit einer Fehlinformation einhergehen. In einem solchen Fall benötigen wir stets erfahrungsbasierte Gründe, die für die besondere Kompetenz der fraglichen Person auf dem relevanten Gebiet sprechen. Das gilt unabhängig davon, ob wir konkreten Anlass dazu haben, an der Verlässlichkeit dieser Person zu zweifeln.
In: Society & Animals

Abstract

Knafo and Teschke’s surprisingly polemical critique of Brenner’s work is derived from earlier work which applies the same critique arising out of the agency/structure debate in International Relations theory. Casting Brenner’s work as increasingly structuralist over time and therefore increasingly prone to reify social relations, thereby suppressing or downplaying the role of agency, Knafo and Teschke ask their readers to take such claims at face value, offering no close textual reading of Brenner’s work. Focusing almost entirely on method rather than on substance and by framing their critique within the confines of the unending debate over structure and agency, Knafo and Teschke’s claim that Brenner’s work consistently reifies social relations – presuming but not demonstrating that this is his intent – obscures and fails to engage substantively with his powerful historical contributions, or to offer alternative definitions or historical theories.

In: Historical Materialism
Author: Zhaoyuan WAN
WAN Zhaoyuan analyses how Chinese intellectuals conceived of the relationship between ‘science’ and ‘religion’ through in-depth examination of the writings of Kang Youwei, a prominent political reformer and radical Confucian thinker, often referred to by his disciples as the ‘Martin Luther of Confucianism’.
Confronted with the rise of scientism and challenged by the Conflict Thesis during his life among adversarial Chinese New Culture intellectuals, Kang maintains a holistic yet evolving conception of a compatible and complementary relationship between scientific knowledge and ‘true religion’ exemplified by his Confucian religion ( kongjiao). This close analysis of Kang’s ideas contributes to a richer understanding of the history of science and religion in China and in a more global context.
In: Signs and Media
Author: Lian Duan

Abstract

This article outlines a narratological study of art history, discussing how to tell the story of art while telling the story. With this twofold purpose in mind, the author in this article draws the grande ligne of a narrative model on the one hand and proposes a historical argument about modern Chinese art on the other. The former aims at breaking down the boundary between intrinsic and extrinsic studies of art history, whereas the latter aims at proposing a main thesis about modern Chinese art. For the main thesis, the author argues that the development of Chinese art in the twentieth and the early twenty-first centuries is primarily determined by the interaction between the influence of Western art and the Chinese responses to the influence, and the response is driven by the Chinese anxiety of cultural identity over the last one hundred years. Although the topic of this article is centralized around modern Chinese art, the theorization of the methodological approach is to generalize the narrative model for the study of not only art history but also visual culture, critical theory, and relevant disciplines in the humanities.

Open Access
In: Signs and Media

Abstract

In this paper, we argue that the concept of environmental scaffolding can contribute to a better understanding of our affective life and the complex manners in which it is shaped by environmental entities. In particular, the concept of environmental scaffolding offers a more comprehensive and less controversial framework than the notions of embeddedness and extendedness. We contribute to the literature on situated affectivity by embracing and systematizing the diversity of affective scaffolding. In doing so, we introduce several distinctions that provide classifications of different types of environmentally scaffolded affectivity. Furthermore, we differentiate eight dimensions (e.g., trust, individualization, or intent) that allow us to evaluate the quality and effectivity of scaffolds in particular applications. On that basis, we develop a taxonomy using paradigmatic examples of affective scaffolding. This taxonomy enriches the current debate by emphasizing distinctions that are often conflated and by identifying fields of application that are commonly overlooked.

In: Danish Yearbook of Philosophy
Authors: Yiheng Zhao and Na Liu

Abstract

Truth is the core issue of any theory of meaning, and the pursuit of truth is the fundamental driving force of human consciousness. Is the appearance of truth true? In what sense is it truth? How do we obtain truth? Can a final truth be obtained? These are among the most difficult questions to answer in the theory of meaning and the best divergence points in various meaning theories. Peirce’s semiotic phenomenology puts forward a view of truth that can be grasped clearly but is nevertheless complex and different from pragmatism. First, meaning activity is the pursuit of truth. Second, no semiotic representation can be totally untrue or completely true. Third, to access truth there must be an accumulation of semiotic activities until the consensus of a community is reached, called a ‘communitarian truth’. Fourth, since the community has no boundaries, the infinite derivative of symbolic text can gradually approach the ideal truth.

Open Access
In: Signs and Media
Authors: Jinyan Sun and Dawei Han

Abstract

Texts are the result of engravings in different social contexts, and they are culturally activated in different ways. The image of wuxia is formed by various accompanying texts sharing and participating in constructing a collection of wuxia narratives. By means of text-naming methods, authors, serialization of novels, film and television adaptations, criticism, and so forth, the image of wuxia operates in a continuous cycle that flows throughout texts that are gradually accumulated in the literary corpus. On this basis, it condenses and expresses a series of ideological discourses centred on topics such as gender and nation. These accompanying texts have diverse identities and play multiple roles in the cause of wuxia coming to be viewed as public heroes. They not only supply us with frameworks and positioning of wuxia novels but also provide cultural observations of society so as to participate in the construction of wuxia myths.

Open Access
In: Signs and Media