This translated volume is based on the Chinese publication Green Book of Population and Labor (No. 18). It focuses on the new era of economic growth fueled primarily by innovation and entrepreneurship, and corresponding developments in China’s employment landscape. Chapter one offers an overview of China’s new economy. Chapter two examines emerging trends in both the labor and the job markets. Changes to labor relations under the new economy are discussed in chapter three, followed by two chapters that look closely at the role China’s largest online ride-hailing service provider has played in shaping the workforce and in job creation. The final chapter reports on current policy support for innovative industries, and makes recommendations.


Dangdut, Indonesia’s most popular music genre, is a realm of gender contestation. Since the 1990s, the role of professional dangdut singer—once equally filled by men and women—has been dominated by women. In an atmosphere of increasing Islamic fervour, pious consumption, and moral panic, the public perception of gender and sexuality has serious implications for men who sing dangdut on television. Regardless of their gender identity and sexual orientation, male singers must prove themselves to be properly gendered to maintain their positions as entertainers. However, proper masculinity is a difficult target to hit, especially considering the gender diversity of off-air and backstage realities. Men use several tactics to boost perceptions of masculinity and acceptability. One way in which men who sing dangdut endeavour to prove themselves cowok banget, or super manly, is by employing symbols of Islam and the Middle East—filtered through an Indonesian lens—to communicate masculinity.