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Patent and innovation during the Industrial Revolution in England

Reflections on Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795)

Deming Liu


The article explores the role of patent or lack thereof in Josiah Wedgwood’s business. It first discusses the motive behind his opposition of extension of Richard Champion’s patent and then delves into his defence of his own patent in the dispute with the alleged infringer. It aims to show the incongruence of words and deeds of a tradesman with respect to patents; more importantly, it sets out to demonstrate that the claim of patent as an incentivising measure does not bear out as far as Wedgwood is concerned; rather, it is lack of patent protection that facilitates innovation in his pottery business.

‘Strasbourg was something new, it was an adventure’

A history of the Belgian cases before the European Court of Human Rights in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s

Laurens Lavrysen


In recent years, a burgeoning literature has focused on the history of human rights in general and the history of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in particular. In order to understand how the ECHR gradually managed to gain authority in diverse national settings, it is necessary to complement transnational historical perspectives with studies of national reception histories. The present article approaches the history of the ECHR in Belgium by focusing on the history of the Belgian cases in Strasbourg, which have played an important role in contributing to the ‘discovery’ of the ECHR in the Belgian legal system. On the basis of interviews with actors involved in the early cases against Belgium, it was possible to determine their position in the Belgian legal landscape as well as their motivations and aspirations in going to Strasbourg. Moreover, these interviews allowed gaining insight into the circumstances out of which litigation against Belgium arose.

R.C. van Caenegem


Notwithstanding that the role of women in law courts could be expected to be modest for the Middle Ages, a perusal of lawsuits of the 12th century produced even a lesser proportion than expected.


Natalia Królikowska-Jedlińska