The question of whether or not archetypes are transmitted biologically or culturally is wrongly posed and has hampered progress in Jungian thought regarding archetype theory. Considerations regarding psychological development show that some contents of the human psyche are, strictly speaking, neither biologically nor culturally derived. Examples are given, and the question becomes, How does this fact affect archetype theory? The present essay examines this question in depth.
Thomas D. Hamm (Earlham College) argues that a self-conscious, liberal Quakerism emerged in North America between 1790 and 1920. It had three characteristics. The first was a commitment to liberty of conscience. The second was pronounced doubts about orthodox beliefs, such as the divinity of Christ. Finally, liberal Friends saw themselves as holding beliefs fully consistent with early Quakerism. Stirrings appeared as early as the 1790s. Hicksite Friends in the 1820s, although perceiving themselves as traditionalists, manifested all of these characteristics. When other Hicksites took such stances in even more radical directions after 1830, however, bitter divisions ensued. Orthodox Friends were slower to develop liberal thought. It emerged after 1870, as higher education became central to the Gurneyite branch of Orthodox Quakerism, and as some Gurneyites responded to influences in the larger society, and to the changes introduced by the advent of revivalism, by embracing modernist Protestantism.
From the perspective of terror management theory (TMT), the awareness of death is problematic as it has the potential to increase anxiety. It would be hard to function when faced with this fear; thus, people defend themselves from heightened mortality awareness by adhering to their cultural beliefs (e.g., religion, nationalism), having positive self-views (i.e., self-esteem), and/or turning toward their relationships with close others. The purpose of the current volume is to introduce readers to the field of experimental existential psychology (broadly) and TMT (specifically). To do this, Section 1 will provide an introduction to the field, along with discussing methodological considerations when conducting terror management research. Section 2 was written to discuss some of the applied implications of TMT as it is relates to close relationships, religion, politics and law, positivity, and existential growth. Much work from a terror management tradition has been interested in how death concerns affect physical and psychological health. Because of this, Section 3 will introduce two variations of TMT (i.e., Terror Management Health Model [TMHM] & Anxiety-buffer Disruption Theory [ABDT]), with implications for individuals’ well-being. Finally, Section 4 will discuss alternative perspectives and controversies within the field. Throughout this volume, we provide a discussion on potential avenues of future study.
Pentecostals visualize, read, and rehearse Scripture in ways that speak to a gospel of wholeness, inclusion, and uplift. Pentecostals use Scripture to participate via the Spirit in the continuing expression of gospel, with Scripture emerging from gospel. This gospel that gave birth to Scripture emerges anew in the reading, hearing, and rehearsal of Scripture. This article considers three models for the use of Scripture that empower Pentecostals to participate in a continuing expression of gospel. These are 1) gospel as mysterion, 2) gospel as liberation, and 3) gospel as embodied, prophetic voice.
The traditional Pentecostal understanding of the events of Acts 8.4-25 typically centers upon a two-stage model for the reception of the Spirit. While this article does not seek to preclude the plausibility of such a model, it does, however, seek to take a step further by providing a culturally-sensitive analysis concerning how the coming of the Spirit, the apostolic imposition of hands (Acts 8.17), and the concept of worship in ‘spirit and truth’ (Jn 4.24) serves as a paradigm for ethnic reconciliation.
Development of Pentecostal hermeneutics continues to benefit from further consideration of the roles general philosophical and theological hermeneutics play in the formation of Pentecostal hermeneutics of Scripture and life. This article pictures a Pentecostal philosophical-theological hermeneutical paradigm by sketching the contours of a broad hermeneutical realist program for Pentecostal interpretive structures. It commends a dialectical structure which recognizes the thoroughgoing contextuality of human understanding with attendant linguistic-symbolic encultured categories of knowing in interpretive relation with the ontic, which, for Pentecostal Christian hermeneutics especially, includes divine revelation. The article further commends a theological narrative of epochal moments in salvation history – Creation-Incarnation-Pentecost-Eschaton – to provide an overarching theological structure which is complementary with already prominent Pentecostal governing theological narrations.