The forty-one years between the Society of Jesus’s papal suppression in 1773 and its eventual restoration in 1814 remain controversial, with new research and interpretations continually appearing. Shore’s narrative approaches these years, and the period preceding the suppression, from a new perspective that covers individuals not usually discussed in works dealing with this topic. As well as examining the contributions of former Jesuits to fields as diverse as ethnology—a term and concept pioneered by an ex-Jesuit—and library science, where Jesuits and ex-Jesuits laid the groundwork for the great advances of the nineteenth century, the essay also explores the period the exiled Society spent in the Russian Empire. It concludes with a discussion of the Society’s restoration in the broader context of world history.
Thomas D. Hamm (Earlham College) argues that a self-conscious, liberal Quakerism emerged in North America between 1790 and 1920. It had three characteristics. The first was a commitment to liberty of conscience. The second was pronounced doubts about orthodox beliefs, such as the divinity of Christ. Finally, liberal Friends saw themselves as holding beliefs fully consistent with early Quakerism. Stirrings appeared as early as the 1790s. Hicksite Friends in the 1820s, although perceiving themselves as traditionalists, manifested all of these characteristics. When other Hicksites took such stances in even more radical directions after 1830, however, bitter divisions ensued. Orthodox Friends were slower to develop liberal thought. It emerged after 1870, as higher education became central to the Gurneyite branch of Orthodox Quakerism, and as some Gurneyites responded to influences in the larger society, and to the changes introduced by the advent of revivalism, by embracing modernist Protestantism.
Pentecostals visualize, read, and rehearse Scripture in ways that speak to a gospel of wholeness, inclusion, and uplift. Pentecostals use Scripture to participate via the Spirit in the continuing expression of gospel, with Scripture emerging from gospel. This gospel that gave birth to Scripture emerges anew in the reading, hearing, and rehearsal of Scripture. This article considers three models for the use of Scripture that empower Pentecostals to participate in a continuing expression of gospel. These are 1) gospel as mysterion, 2) gospel as liberation, and 3) gospel as embodied, prophetic voice.
The traditional Pentecostal understanding of the events of Acts 8.4-25 typically centers upon a two-stage model for the reception of the Spirit. While this article does not seek to preclude the plausibility of such a model, it does, however, seek to take a step further by providing a culturally-sensitive analysis concerning how the coming of the Spirit, the apostolic imposition of hands (Acts 8.17), and the concept of worship in ‘spirit and truth’ (Jn 4.24) serves as a paradigm for ethnic reconciliation.
Development of Pentecostal hermeneutics continues to benefit from further consideration of the roles general philosophical and theological hermeneutics play in the formation of Pentecostal hermeneutics of Scripture and life. This article pictures a Pentecostal philosophical-theological hermeneutical paradigm by sketching the contours of a broad hermeneutical realist program for Pentecostal interpretive structures. It commends a dialectical structure which recognizes the thoroughgoing contextuality of human understanding with attendant linguistic-symbolic encultured categories of knowing in interpretive relation with the ontic, which, for Pentecostal Christian hermeneutics especially, includes divine revelation. The article further commends a theological narrative of epochal moments in salvation history – Creation-Incarnation-Pentecost-Eschaton – to provide an overarching theological structure which is complementary with already prominent Pentecostal governing theological narrations.