In antiquity, breast milk was an elixir for every nursling. Despite this, there are but very few passages in the Bible that mention nursing. Curiously enough, the apostle Paul depicts himself as a nurse and provider of milk for his believers (1 Thess 2:7; 1 Cor 3:2). The motif of male providers of milk appears in numerous first and second century sources dependent on and independent from Paul. An overview of sources of Christ-believers from the first two centuries demonstrates that in characterizations of the lactating Godfather and the nursing Christ, the motifs of nursing and breastmilk continuously loses its real life connotation as something female thing and becomes predominantly male. This paper traces how a metaphor that is originally informed by nourishment, health, survival, and wellbeing at a female breast, eventually develops into a description of salvation mediated by male characters.
The following article is part of an essay trilogy dwelling on space and spatial concepts in New Testament scriptures. In the course of this, space thematic approaches are consequently utilized as an interface for political, socio-historical and theological- christological issues. The focal point of this article is an application of this space orientated approach concerning 1 Peter and Revelation.
This paper analyses the textual variant of the name of Noemin’s husband in the book of Ruth: Elimelech according to the Masoretic Text and Abimelech according to the Septuagint. It investigates if this textual variant is linked to a different Hebrew Vorlage, whether it is carried out during the process of translation of the text in its Greek form, or whether it is due to its transmission in its Greek form. Finally, this study analyses the literary criticism of this variant by showing how a coherent character is created by name and through actions and how, in this way, God’s presence is accentuated in the narrative.
Among many other peculiarities of the Book of Ezekiel, the numerous movements and spatial terms mentioned in it stand out. Using the cultural-anthropological concept that underlies rites of passage and related transitional phenomena (A. van Gennep, V. Turner) some of them can be taken as elements of a transitional process. Therefore, the spatial structure in Ezek. 20 and in the overall layout of the Book of Ezekiel is used to illustrate that the Babylonian exile is a necessary liminal phase of the transition from Israel’s status as an apostate people to a new status given by JHWH.
Undoubtedly the city Jerusalem (with its temple) is accentuated in Luke-Acts. This is indicated by the high frequency of the name(s) (Luke-Acts presents ca. 65% of the NT-instances!) Ἰερουσαλήμ and Ἱεροσόλυμα and also by the important role of the town within the structure, i.e. within the composition of the two books (cf. only Lk 1–2; 9:51; Acts 1:8; 19:21). But what does this emphasis mean? Differences in the understanding of the relevant data are obvious (and this matter resembles [not without cause] the intense discussions in the area of Pauline studies during the last decades). Older perspectives (advocated amongst others by F. C. Overbeck, E. Haenchen and H. Conzelmann) try to conceive for instance the Stephanus episode (Acts 6–7) and the last scene of Acts in an „anti-Judaic“ manner. But Acts 7:55–56 (cf. Lk 1:11) could hint at the celestial sanctuary, and Acts 28:20 (cf. v. 26–27, esp. v. 27b) names the „hope of Israel“. So a „New(er) Perspective“ could or should be preferable, paying attention to certain features of Luke-Acts, which possibly point to salvation-historical aims of the author.